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  1. How to answer Multiple-Choice Questions: All of the questions on the EOC W. History will be multiple choice questions. In this chapter, you will learn how to answer some of the major types of questions on the test. A multiple choice question is one in which there is a question followed by several possible answers. Your job is to choose the best answer to the question. This unit will help you learn to answer these kinds of questions. Social Studies skills: 29(F) Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause and effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, making generalizations and predictions, drawing inferences and conclusions…

  2. Recalling Important InformationOne common type of multiple choice question tests your ability to recall important information. Those questions test your knowledge of important terms, concepts, and people. Here is an example. • Which best describes the Renaissance in Europe? a. a period of major achievements in art, architecture and literature b. a social system in which knights received land for service to their lord. c. a system of beliefs about God and the afterlife d. a struggle between Christians and Muslims for control of the Holy Land. As you can see, this question tests your ability to recall information describing a specific term – the Renaissance. UNLOCKING THE ANSWER What do you think is the answer to Question 1?___ Explain, or justify, why you have selected that answer. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  3. HOW TO USE THE “E-R-A” APPROACHWhatever type of multiple-choice question you are asked, we suggest you follow the same three-step approach to answer it. Think of this as the “E-R-A” approach. • Step 1: Examine the Question-start by carefully reading the question. Be sure you understand any information the question provides. Then make sure you understand what the question is asking for. Recall What you know Apply What you know Examine the Question The question asks you to select the best description of the Renaissance. Which answer choice correctly describes the Renaissance?

  4. HOW TO USE THE “E-R-A” APPROACHWhatever type of multiple-choice question you are asked, we suggest you follow the same three-step approach to answer it. Think of this as the “E-R-A” approach. • Step 2: Recall What you Know – Next you should identify the topic that the question asks about. Take a moment to think what you know about the topic. Mentally review all the important concepts, facts, and relationships you can remember about that topic or term. Recall What you know Apply What you know Examine the Question In this case, you may recall that the Renaissance was the name of the rebirth of culture that began in Italy in the 1400’s. It soon spread to the rest of Europe. The Renaissance brought about achievements in art, literature, and architecture. Artists like Michaelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci painted a new, more realistic style. Renaissance scholars re-discovered Greek and Roman works of literature and philosophy. Architects studied classical examples to develop a new style of building.

  5. HOW TO USE THE “E-R-A” APPROACHWhatever type of multiple-choice question you are asked, we suggest you follow the same three-step approach to answer it. Think of this as the “E-R-A” approach. • Step 3: Apply What you know: Finally, take what you can recall about the topic and apply it to answer the question. Sometimes it helps to try to answer the question before you look at the answer choices. Then look to see if any of the choices is what you thought the answer should be. Recall What you know Apply What you know Examine the Question Here, the question asks you to describe the Renaissance. To answer the question, you need to remember what the Renaissance was. Then you have to apply this information by selecting the best description of the Renaissance from the four answer choices. • Choice B describes feudalism, the system that existed in Europe during the Middle Ages. similar • Choice C describes religion. Obviously wrong • Choice D describes the Crusades. Obviously wrong • Choice A is the best answer. It is the only answer that correctly describes what happened during the Renaissance. Remember: It’s a process – use the steps on every question – discipline will help you when your stuck

  6. Generalization:A generalization identifies characteristics that several specific facts or examples share. In order to understand generalizations better, look at these three statements about particular ancient civilizations. • What do these three specific facts show in general? They show that the first civilizations arose along major rivers. This statement is a generalization. Mesopotamian civilizations developed between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Chinese civilization first arose along the Hwang Ho. Egyptian civilization developed along the Nile River.

  7. Generalization:A generalization identifies characteristics that several specific facts or examples share. In order to understand generalizations better, look at these three statements about particular ancient civilizations. • Some questions may test your ability to see the relationship between specific examples and generalizations about them. Here is how these questions may appear: • Chinggis Khan united the Mongol peoples and conquered Asia. • Peter the Great modernized Russia and expanded its territory to the Baltic Sea. • 2. Which generalization do these examples support? • f. Peter the Great based his actions on Chinggis Khan. • g. A dynamic leader can transform a people or country. • h. Both Mongols and Russians built ports on the Baltic Sea • j. Chinggis Khan and Peter the Great lived in the same historical time. UNLOCKING THE ANSWER What do you think is the answer to Question 2?___ What generalizations can you make based on both examples in the question?_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  8. HOW TO USE THE “E-R-A” APPROACHAs you can see, this question asks you to make a generalization based on two examples. To answer questions about generalizations, you should again use the “E-R-A” approach. Let’s see how this approach could be used to answer this question. • Step 1: Examine the Question-First read the question carefully. Be sure you understand what it is asking for. Does it ask you to make a generalization from examples? Or, does it ask you to apply a generalization to a specific situation? In this case, the question gives two specific examples: Chinggis Khan and the Mongols, and Peter the Great and Russia. Study these two examples to be sure you fully understand what they show. • Step 2: Recall What you Know: Now think about what you have learned about generalizations. What do the two examples have in common? Notice that in both cases, a dynamic leader transformed his people and also led them to make successful conquests. This is an important generalization. Recall What you know Apply What you know Examine the Question

  9. HOW TO USE THE “E-R-A” APPROACHAs you can see, this question asks you to make a generalization based on two examples. To answer questions about generalizations, you should again use the “E-R-A” approach. Let’s see how this approach could be used to answer this question. • Step 3: Apply What you Know: Finally, apply what you know to find the right answer: Look over the answer choices. Eliminate any answers that are not generalizations or that do not apply to both examples. Then choose the best generalizations from the remaining choices. In this example, all of the answer choices are generalizations. But only one of these generalizations applies to both of the examples in the question. • Choice F is wrong: although Peter the Great knew of Chinggis Khan’s existence, he did not base his actions on Chinggis Khan. • Choice H is wrong: the first example does not state that the Mongols built a port on the Baltic. In fact, the Mongols never did that. • Choice J is also wrong: Chinggis Khan (1162-1227) and Peter the Great (1672-1725) did not live at the same time. In fact, they lived 500 years apart. • Choice G is correct: The first example states that Chinggis Khan united the Mongols and conquered much of Asia. The second example states that Peter the Great modernized Russia and expanded its territories to the Baltic Sea. You can generalize that dynamic leaders can transform a people or country. Recall What you know Apply What you know Examine the Question

  10. Generalization:Look at the information in the boxes below and use your knowledge of history to answer question #3. 3. Which conclusion can best be drawn from these two examples?. People migrated less often in the past than they do today. People sometimes migrate to meet their needs for survival. People often migrate in search of religious freedom. People who migrate are usually ruled by strong leaders. • Step 1: Examine the Question What do the examples show?____________________________________________ What does the question ask you to do?_____________________________________ • Step 2: Recall What you Know What do you recall about this topic?______________________________________ What do you recall about drawing conclusions?______________________________ • Step 3: Apply What you Know Based on what you know, which is the best answer?__________________________ Humans first appeared in East Africa. Thousands of years ago, humans spread from Africa to Asia and Europe in search of food. Ancient peoples crossed over from Asia to North America following the animal herds that provided their food.

  11. Generalization:Another type of generalization question starts with a general statement or concept, and then asks you to select an example of it: 4. Which statement provides the best example of migration? f. Ancient Greeks moved to Italy, where they set up colonies. g. Christians and Muslims fought for control of the Holy Land. h. Native Americans died from the introduction of European diseases. j. Luther challenged the Pope’s authority in religious matters.

  12. Cause-and-Effect Questions:Much of history consists of events leading to still other events. The explanation of why an event came about gives history much of its meaning. Cause-and-Effect questions test your understanding of the relationship between a condition or event, its causes or effects. • Cause: A cause is what made something happen. For example, if you turn the switch of a light, you cause the light to go on. Often, important developments have more than one cause. For example, the European exploration of the Americas was caused by the arrival of new technologies – like the compass and better sails. It was also caused by the European desire to reach the Spice Islands of Asia by an all water route. • Effect: An effect is what happens because of something. An effect is the result of an event, action or development. For example, when you turn the switch, the effect of that action is that the light goes on. Important historical developments often have several effects. For example, the European encounter with the peoples of the Americas led to an exchange of ideas and products, as well as to the European conquest of the Americas and the deaths of millions of Indians by disease. These were all effects of Columbus’ voyage. Many questions on the EOC will ask about the cause-and-effect relationships. To answer such questions, be careful to understand what the question asks for – a cause or an effect. Then think about the causes or effects of the event you are asked about. Cause: Someone turned on the switch Effect: The light went on.

  13. Cause & Effect:Many questions on the EOC will ask about cause & effect relationships. To answer such questions, be careful to understand what the question asks for – a cause or effect. Then think about the causes or effects of the event you are asked about: 5. Which event helped lead to the end of serfdom in Western Europe? a. Columbus’ voyages to the Americas b. the spread of the Black Death c. the start of the Atlantic slave trade d. the fall of Constantinople. Using the “E-R-A” Approach Step 1: Examine the Question Read the question carefully. The question asks you to identify a cause. You must identify a cause that led to the end of serfdom in Western Europe. Step 2: Recall What you Know Step and think of everything you can recall about serfdom in Western Europe. You should recall that serfdom was a system established in the Middle Ages. Under this system, peasants called serfs, worked on the lord’s lands in exchange for his protection. This system lasted in Western Europe until the 1350’s. Gradually, the system broke down. Lords wanted rent instead of service. The Black Death also contributed to the end of serfdom. Many people died from the plague. Lords and towns needed workers. To attract workers, town officials ignored if someone was a run away serf. Step 3: Apply What you Know Now apply what you know to find the correct answer. In this example, Choice A is wrong. Columbus’ voyages to the Americas in 1492 did not help end serfdom. Choice C is wrong because the rise of the Atlantic slave trade occurred after serfdom ended. Choice D is also wrong. The fall of Constantinople in 1453 brought scholars in Italy and other places in Europe, but this did not help end serfdom. Choice B, the spread of the Black Death, did contribute to the end of serfdom. It is the best answer. The Black Death created conditions where serfs were needed by landlords and towns. In this situation, serfs could bargain for better conditions. This contributed to the end of serfdom.

  14. Cause & Effect:Now answer another cause-and-effect question using the E-R-A Approach. 6. Which development contributed to the rise of civilization in ancient Mesopotamia? f. the introduction of democratic government g. the growth of food surpluses from irrigation h. the settlement of religious differences j. the beginning of free public education. Using the “E-R-A” Approach Step 1: Examine the Question What does the question ask you to do? Does it ask you to identify a cause or effect? __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ Step 2: Recall What you Know What did you recall about this topic? What do you remember about the rise of civilization in ancient Mesopotamia? __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ Step 3: Apply What you Know Applying what you know, which answer is best? Explain why the other answer choices are wrong. __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________

  15. Compare and Contrast: • We often compare two or more things to understand them better. To compare, we look at similarities and differences. Items are similar when they have characteristics in common. Items are different when each has some features not found in the other. Compare and contrast questions often use words such as similarities or differences. A compare and contrast question might appear as follows: 7. In what way were the Babylonian Code of Hammurabi and the Twelve Tables similar? a. They proclaimed a belief in one God. b. They established a written set of laws. c. They provided records of economic activity. d. They created new forms of government. Using the “E-R-A” Approach Step 1: Examine the Question The question asks you to select an answer that identifies a similarity between the Code of Hammurabi and the Twelve Tables of Rome. Step 2: Recall What you Know Recall that the Code of Hammurabi was a written code established by the ruler of ancient Babylonia. It is specified what punishments Babylonians faced for each crime. It called for “an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.” The Twelve were tablets with laws set up by Romans. Commoners (plebeians) demanded these laws be written so these laws be written so that nobles could not abuse them by changing the laws. Step 3: Apply What you Know Which answer identifies a similarity between the two items? Choice A is wrong. Neither document proclaimed a belief in one God. Choices C and D are also wrong. Neither document recorded economic activity or established a new form of government. Choice B is the best answer. Both the Code of Hammurabi and the 12 Tables established written laws.

  16. Compare and Contrast:Now answer another compare and contrast question using the E-R-A Approach. 8. What was an important difference between the ancient city-states of Sparta and Athens? f. Sparta allowed slavery g. Sparta placed greater importance on the family h. Sparta protected human rights j. Sparta placed more emphasis on military service. _________________Using the “E-R-A” Approach Step 1: Examine the Question What does the question ask you to do? __________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ Step 2: Recall What you Know What did you recall about this topic? __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ Step 3: Apply What you Know Applying what you know, which answer is best? __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________