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  1. FINAL EXAM FORMAT • 100 multiple choice questions (50 pts) • 2 reading questions answer each (30 pts) • 2 longer essays (20 points)

  2. REVIEW FOR FINAL EXAM Tuesday 10:20- 12:20 Bring #2 pencil & pen Bring REVIEW SHEET (75 points on Marriage chapter)

  3. Author’s name is Rev. William J. O’Malley S.J. = S______of J___.

  4. Chapter 1 Whose truth

  5. Theme of Chapter 1: EPISTEMOLOGY • Epistemology is the study of human knowledge

  6. Rorschach Inkblot Test • A series of inkblots patterns used to get a patient to express their SUBJECTIVE opinions and feelings. • They have NO OBJECTIVE meaning.

  7. SUBJECTIVE • Based on a person’s opinion

  8. OBJECTIVE • Based on the FACTS

  9. The reasoning process 2. categorizing • --------1.perceiving tree 3.evaluating 4.symbolizing Pretty! 5. Critique-ask someone

  10. REASONING Process • Perceive • Categorize • Evaluation • Symbolize • Critique

  11. MORALITY- defined • MORALITY is living up to the invitation of one’s HUMAN NATURE. • It is a CHOICE. • Only HUMANS have that choice.

  12. Chapter 2 What does being human mean?

  13. There are 4 earthly elements • MINERAL • VEGETABLE • ANIMAL • HUMAN Inert?

  14. Only humans can… fast from food, blush pray, draw, write poetry & music, diet, make plans & resolutions make promises (marriage vows) sacrifice for the beloved. Only humans are SELF-AWARE. We have a CHOICE.

  15. HUMANS have a CHOICE • We are born human • But not FULLY human.

  16. We have the POTENTIAL To become MORE HUMAN.

  17. Chapter 3 CONSCIENCE How do we make judgments?

  18. Paris’ parents throw him away

  19. Two motives for making a moral choice rather than an immoral choice: 1. UTILITARIANISM-whatever works for me 2. ALTRUISM- whatever is honorable

  20. UTILITARIANS are motivated by self-interest.

  21. ALTRUISTS are motivated unselfishly by what is honorable.

  22. TRIAGE • The term TRIAGE began in wartime to help medics decide who to treat when there are limited resources and overwhelming demand.

  23. Conscience (definition)pg 33 • is a set of guidelines for making moral decisions. • a set of INTERNALIZED PRINCIPLES. • We are NOT born with it.

  24. Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939)

  25. The Id (literally “It”) • Our natural, in-born ,animal instincts to eat, sleep, & excrete. IMPULSIVE & SELFISH. the beast

  26. The Superego • A kind of ‘temporary conscience’ or survival manual filled with our parents’, society’s & the media’s rules. UNREASONED & RIGID.

  27. The Ego- from the Latin meaning= “I am” -NOT referring to conceit, or a ‘big’ ego -develops during adolescence, a sense of ‘self’ -sometimes called the ‘AGE of REASON’ -independent of parents, peers, media, etc. THISIS YOUR CONSCIENCE !

  28. The difference between • PERSONALITY- from the Greek ‘PERSONA’ means OUTER mask (outer self) • CHARACTER (CONSCIENCE) - has to do with your INNER self. (your principles & beliefs)

  29. Two tasks in forming an EGO or a CONSCIENCE 1.CONTROL your ID Urges to sleep, eat, drink, sex… 2. CRITIQUE your SUPEREGO Evaluate what you have been taught (or brainwashed) to believe. Is what they told me TRUE?

  30. Chapter 4 Relationships

  31. The 2 great questions:

  32. BIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY defined: The fragile web of interdependent PHYSICAL relationships

  33. The U.S. is… • 4% (almost 5%) of the world’s population

  34. The U.S. consumes… • 40% of the world’s fuel

  35. MORAL ECOLOGY • The fragile web of interdependent HUMAN (MORAL) relationships.

  36. GOLDEN RULE… NOT a matter of religion…

  37. But a matter of HUMAN SURVIVAL.

  38. Chapter 5 LEGAL/MORAL Obey the law – (COMMON SENSE) or suffer for being NOBLE?

  39. Antigone – was NOBLE

  40. Obey the LAW or Obey the LAW orObey your CONSCIENCE?

  41. Two kinds of LAWS

  42. 2 factors in HUMAN makeup make Satan unnecessary:

  43. 2 kinds of AUTHORITY/power

  44. Chapter 6 SELF-RESPECT Character is greater than personality. Character> personality

  45. Chapter SELF RESPECT

  46. Ayrehead had character

  47. His brothers just had personality

  48. Chapter 6 SELF-RESPECT Character is greater than personality. Character> personality

  49. The difference between healthy PRIDE and unhealthy HUBRIS (CONCEIT) • PRIDE is a HEALTHY feeling of satisfaction for a job well done or a life well lived… • HUBRIS-is an UNHEALTHY arrogance, refusal to face flaws.