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CS 136, Advanced Architecture. Class Introduction. Outline. Computer science at a crossroads Computer architecture vs. instruction-set architecture A few course details What computer architecture brings to table. Crossroads: Conventional Wisdom. Old conventional wisdom: Power is free

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Cs 136 advanced architecture l.jpg

CS 136, Advanced Architecture

Class Introduction


Outline l.jpg
Outline

  • Computer science at a crossroads

  • Computer architecture vs. instruction-set architecture

  • A few course details

  • What computer architecture brings to table

CS 136


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Crossroads: Conventional Wisdom

  • Old conventional wisdom:

    • Power is free

    • Transistors are expensive

  • New conventional wisdom: “Power wall”

    • Power expensive

    • Transistors “free” (Can put more on chip than can afford to turn on)

CS 136


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Conventional Wisdom (cont’d)

  • Old conventional wisdom:

    • Instruction-level parallelism gives performance advances

      • Compilers

      • Innovation

        • Out-of-order execution

        • Speculation

        • Very long instruction words (VLIW)

  • New conventional wisdom: “ILP wall”

    • Law of diminishing returns on more HW for ILP

CS 136


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Conventional Wisdom (cont’d)

  • Old conventional wisdom:

    • Multiplies are slow

    • Memory access is fast

  • New conventional wisdom: “Memory wall”

    • Memory slow (200 clock cycles to DRAM memory)

    • Multiplies fast (4 clocks)

CS 136


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Conventional Wisdom (cont’d)

  • Old conventional wisdom:

    • Uniprocessor performance doubles every 1.5 yrs

  • New conventional wisdom:

    • Power Wall + ILP Wall + Memory Wall = Brick Wall

CS 136


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The End of Conventional Wisdom

  • Uniprocessor performance now doubles every 5(?) yrs

  • Sea change in chip design: multiple “cores” (2X processors per chip every ~2 years)

  • More but simpler processors

    • More power efficient

CS 136


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Crossroads: Uniprocessor Performance

From Hennessy and Patterson, Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, 4th edition, October, 2006

  • VAX : 25%/year 1978 to 1986

  • RISC + x86: 52%/year 1986 to 2002

  • RISC + x86: ??%/year 2002 to present

CS 136


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Sea Change in Chip Design

  • Intel 4004 (1971): 4-bit processor,2312 transistors, 0.4 MHz, 10 micron PMOS, 11 mm2 chip

  • RISC II (1983): 32-bit, 5 stage pipeline, 40,760 transistors, 3 MHz, 3 micron NMOS, 60 mm2 chip

  • 125 mm2 chip, 0.065 micron CMOS = 2312 RISC II+FPU+Icache+Dcache

    • RISC II shrinks to ~ 0.02 mm2 at 65 nm

    • Caches via DRAM or 1 transistor SRAM (www.t-ram.com) ?

    • Proximity Communication via capacitive coupling at > 1 TB/s ?(Ivan Sutherland @ Sun / Berkeley)

  • Processor is the new transistor?

CS 136


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Déjà vu All Over Again?

  • Multiprocessors imminent in 1970s, ‘80s, ‘90s, …

    “… today’s processors … are nearing an impasse as technologies approach the speed of light..”

    David Mitchell, The Transputer: The Time Is Now (1989)

  • Transputer was premature  Custom multiprocessors strove to lead uniprocessors Procrastination rewarded: 2X sequential perf. / 1.5 years

    “We are dedicating all of our future product development to multicore designs. … This is a sea change in computing”

    Paul Otellini, President, Intel (2004)

  • Difference is all microprocessor companies switch to multiprocessors (AMD, Intel, IBM, Sun; all new Apples 2 CPUs)  Procrastination penalized: 2X sequential perf. / 5 yrs Biggest programming challenge: 1 to 2 CPUs

CS 136


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Problems with Sea Change

  • Algorithms, Programming Languages, Compilers, Operating Systems, Architectures, Libraries, … not ready to supply thread-level or data-level parallelism for 1000 CPUs / chip (or even tens)

  • Architectures not ready for 1000 CPUs / chip

    • Unlike instruction-level parallelism, can’t be solved just by computer architects and compiler writers alone

    • Also can’t be solved without participation of computer architects

  • This edition of CS 136 (and 4th Edition of textbook Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach) explores shift from instruction-level parallelism to thread-level / data-level parallelism

CS 136


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Outline

  • Computer science at a crossroads

  • Computer architecture vs. instruction-set architecture

  • A few course details

  • What computer architecture brings to table

CS 136


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Instruction Set Architecture:Critical Interface

  • Properties of a good abstraction

    • Lasts through many generations (portability)

    • Used in many different ways (generality)

    • Provides convenient functionality to higher levels

    • Permits an efficient implementation at lower levels

software

instruction set

hardware

CS 136


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SOFTWARE

Instruction Set Architecture

“... the attributes of a [computing] system as seen by the programmer, i.e. the conceptual structure and functional behavior, as distinct from the organization of the data flows and controls the logic design, and the physical implementation.” – Amdahl, Blaauw, and Brooks, 1964

-- Organization of Programmable

Storage

-- Data Types & Data Structures:

Encodings & Representations

-- Instruction Formats

-- Instruction (or Operation Code) Set

-- Modes of Addressing and Accessing Data Items and Instructions

-- Exceptional Conditions

CS 136


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Example: MIPS32

r0

r1

°

°

°

r31

0

Programmable storage

2^32 x bytes

31 x 32-bit GPRs (R0=0)

32 x 32-bit FP regs (paired DP)

HI, LO, PC

Data types ?

Format ?

Addressing Modes?

PC

lo

hi

  • Arithmetic/Logical

  • ADD, ADDU, SUB, SUBU, AND, OR, XOR, NOR, SLT, SLTU,

  • ADDI, ADDIU, SLTI, SLTIU, ANDI, ORI, XORI, LUI

  • SLL, SRL, SRA, SLLV, SRLV, SRAV

  • Memory Access

  • LB, LBU, LH, LHU, LW, LWL,LWR

  • SB, SH, SW, SWL, SWR

  • Control

  • J, JAL, JR, JALR

  • BEQ, BNE, BLEZ,BGTZ,BLTZ,BGEZ,BLTZAL,BGEZAL

32-bit instructions on word boundary

CS 136


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ISA vs. Computer Architecture

  • Old definition of computer architecture = instruction set design

    • Other aspects of computer design called implementation

    • Insinuates implementation is uninteresting or less challenging

  • Our view is computer architecture >> ISA

  • Architect’s job much more than instruction set design; technical hurdles today more challenging than those in instruction set design

  • Since instruction set design not where action is, some conclude computer architecture (using old definition) is not where action is

    • We disagree on conclusion

    • Agree that ISA not where action is (ISA in CA:AQA 4/e appendix)

CS 136


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Comp. Arch. is anIntegrated Approach

  • What really matters is the functioning of the complete system

    • Hardware, runtime system, compiler, operating system, and application

    • In networking, this is called the “End-to-End argument”

  • Computer architecture is not just about transistors, individual instructions, or particular implementations

    • E.g., original RISC projects replaced complex instructions with a compiler + simple instructions

CS 136


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Computer Architecture is Design and Analysis

  • Architecture is an iterative process:

  • Searching the space of possible designs

  • At all levels of computer systems

Creativity

Cost /

Performance

Analysis

Good Ideas

Mediocre Ideas

Bad Ideas

CS 136


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Outline

  • Computer science at a crossroads

  • Computer architecture vs. instruction-set architecture

  • A few course details

  • What computer architecture brings to table

CS 136


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CS136: Administrivia

Instructor: Geoff Kuenning

Office: Olin 1240

E-mail: geoff@cs.hmc.edu

AIM: ProfKuenning

Office Hours: See web page

Class: MW, 1:15-2:30

Text: Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach,

4th Edition (Oct, 2006)

Web page: http://www.cs.hmc.edu/~geoff/cs136

First reading assignment: Chapter 1 for today and Monday

CS 136


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Graded Work

  • Still somewhat in flux

  • Rough plan:

    • Written homeworks (~15%)

    • One midterm (~35%)

    • Final project (~45%)

    • Participation (~5%)

CS 136


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CS 136 Course Focus

Understanding the design techniques, machine structures, technology factors, evaluation methods that will determine the form of computers in 21st Century

Parallelism

Technology

Programming

Languages

Applications

Interface Design

(ISA)

Computer Architecture:

• Organization

• Hardware/Software Boundary

Reliability

Compilers

Power/Green

Operating

Measurement & Evaluation

History

Systems

CS 136


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Project Options

  • Recreate results from research paper to see

    • If they are reproducible

    • If they still hold

  • Survey research papers on chosen topic

    • Compare and contrast

    • Conclude which approach is better

  • Propose and evaluate new design element

  • Detailed review of an architecture

    • Interesting choices

    • Mistakes that were made

  • Propose your own project that is related to computer architecture

CS 136


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Project Details

  • Individual or pair (prefer pair; must get approval to work alone)

  • Project must be approved by instructor

  • Preliminary results due as term goes along

  • Final presentation and reports

CS 136


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Outline

  • Computer science at a crossroads

  • Computer architecture vs. instruction-set architecture

  • A few course details

  • What computer architecture brings to table

CS 136


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What Computer Architecture Brings to Table

  • Other fields often borrow ideas from architecture

  • Quantitative Principles of Design

    • Take advantage of parallelism

    • Principle of locality

    • Focus on the common case

    • Amdahl’s law

    • The processor performance equation

  • Careful, quantitative comparisons

    • Define, quantify, and summarize relative performance

    • Define and quantify relative cost

    • Define and quantify dependability

    • Define and quantify power

  • Culture of anticipating and exploiting advances in technology

  • Culture of well-defined interfaces that are carefully implemented and thoroughly checked

CS 136


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1) Taking Advantage of Parallelism

  • Increasing throughput of server computer via multiple processors or multiple disks

  • Detailed HW design

    • Carry-lookahead adders use parallelism to speed up computing sums from linear to logarithmic in number of bits per operand

    • Multiple memory banks searched in parallel in set-associative caches

  • Pipelining: overlap instruction execution to reduce the total time to complete an instruction sequence.

    • Not every instruction depends on immediate predecessor  executing instructions completely/partially in parallel possible

    • Classic 5-stage pipeline: 1) Instruction fetch (Ifetch), 2) Register read (Reg), 3) Execute (ALU), 4) Data memory access (Dmem), 5) Register write (Reg)

CS 136


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Reg

Reg

Reg

Reg

Reg

Reg

Reg

Reg

Ifetch

Ifetch

Ifetch

Ifetch

DMem

DMem

DMem

DMem

ALU

ALU

ALU

ALU

Time (clock cycles)

Cycle 1

Cycle 2

Cycle 3

Cycle 4

Cycle 5

Cycle 6

Cycle 7

I

n

s

t

r.

O

r

d

e

r

Pipelined Instruction Execution

CS 136


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Reg

Reg

Reg

Reg

Reg

Reg

Reg

Reg

Ifetch

Ifetch

Ifetch

Ifetch

DMem

DMem

DMem

DMem

ALU

ALU

ALU

ALU

Limits to Pipelining

  • Hazards prevent next instruction from executing during its designated clock cycle

    • Structural hazards: attempt to use the same hardware to do two different things at once

    • Data hazards: Instruction depends on result of prior instruction still in the pipeline

    • Control hazards: Caused by delay between the fetching of instructions and decisions about changes in control flow (branches and jumps).

Time (clock cycles)

I

n

s

t

r.

O

r

d

e

r

CS 136


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2) The Principle of Locality

  • The Principle of Locality:

    • Program accesses a relatively small portion of the address space at any instant of time.

  • Two different types of locality:

    • Temporal Locality (Locality in Time): If an item is referenced, it will tend to be referenced again soon (e.g., loops, reuse)

    • Spatial Locality (Locality in Space): If an item is referenced, items whose addresses are close by tend to be referenced soon (e.g., straight-line code, array access)

  • Last 30 years, HW relied on locality for memory perf.

MEM

P

$

CS 136


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Levels of the Memory Hierarchy

Capacity

Access Time

Cost

Staging

Transfer Unit

Upper Level

CPU Registers

100s Bytes

300 – 500 ps (0.3-0.5 ns)

Registers

prog./compiler

1-8 bytes

Instr. Operands

faster

L1 Cache

L1 and L2 Cache

10s-100s K Bytes

~1 ns - ~10 ns

$1000s/ GByte

cache cntl

32-64 bytes

Blocks

L2 Cache

cache cntl

64-128 bytes

Blocks

Main Memory

G Bytes

80ns- 200ns

~$100/ GByte

Memory

OS

4K-8K bytes

Pages

Disk

10s T Bytes, 10 ms (10,000,000 ns)

~$1 / GByte

Disk

user/operator

Mbytes

Files

Larger

Tape

infinite

sec-min

~$1 / GByte

Internet or Tape

Lower Level

CS 136


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3) Focus on the Common Case

  • Common sense guides computer design

    • Since it’s engineering, common sense is valuable

  • In making a design trade-off, favor the frequent case over the infrequent case

    • E.g., Instruction fetch and decode unit used more frequently than multiplier, so optimize it 1st

    • E.g., If database server has 50 disks / processor, storage dependability dominates system dependability, so optimize it 1st

  • Frequent case is often simpler and can be done faster than the infrequent case

    • E.g., overflow is rare when adding 2 numbers, so improve performance by optimizing more common case of no overflow

    • May slow down overflow, but overall performance improved by optimizing for the normal case

  • What is frequent case and how much performance improved by making case faster => Amdahl’s Law

CS 136


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4) Amdahl’s Law

Best you could ever hope to do:

CS 136


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Amdahl’s Law Example

  • New CPU 10X faster

  • I/O-bound server, so 60% time waiting for I/O

  • Apparently, it’s human nature to be attracted by 10X faster, vs. keeping in perspective it’s just 1.6X faster

CS 136


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Amdahl’s Law in Reality

  • John Ousterhout (of TCL fame): “Why Aren’t Operating Systems Getting Faster as Fast as Hardware?”, Usenix Summer Conference, 1990

    • Conclusion: we’re I/O-bound

    • Note that CS136 doesn’t really address this issue

  • …and you wonder why I’m a file systems geek!

CS 136


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CPU time = Seconds = Instructions x Cycles x Seconds

Program Program Instruction Cycle

CPI

5) Processor Performance Equation

inst count

Inst Count CPI Clock Rate

Program X

Compiler X (X)

Inst. Set. X X

Organization X X

Technology X

Cycle time

Big-O Still Matters!

CS 136


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What’s a Clock Cycle? Seconds

  • Old days: 10 levels of gates

  • Today: determined by numerous time-of-flight issues + gate delays

    • Clock propagation, wire lengths, drivers

Latch

or

register

combinational

logic

CS 136


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And in conclusion … Seconds

  • Computer Architecture >> instruction sets

  • Computer Architecture skill sets are different

    • 5 Quantitative principles of design

    • Quantitative approach to design

    • Solid interfaces that really work

    • Technology tracking and anticipation

  • Computer Science at the crossroads from sequential to parallel computing

    • Salvation requires innovation in many fields, including computer architecture

  • Read Chapter 1, then Appendix A

CS 136