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Advanced Computer Architecture. George Wells. Course Overview. Background Historical SPARC Architecture Modern Trends in Computer Architecture Quantitative assessment (price/performance) Pipelining Superscalar and VLIW Architectures Memory Hierarchies Vector Processing Input/Output

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Advanced Computer Architecture


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    1. Advanced Computer Architecture George Wells

    2. Course Overview • Background • Historical • SPARC Architecture • Modern Trends in Computer Architecture • Quantitative assessment (price/performance) • Pipelining • Superscalar and VLIW Architectures • Memory Hierarchies • Vector Processing • Input/Output • Future Trends

    3. Historical Background • First Generation (1950 – 1959) • Vacuum Tube Technology • Second Generation (1960 – 1968) • Transistor Technology • 1964: IBM coined the term “Computer Architecture” • Third Generation (1969 – 1977) • Integrated Circuits • Fourth Generation (1978 – ?) • Large and Very/Ultra Large Scale Integration

    4. RISC • Reduced Instruction Set Computing • Proposed by Patterson and Ditzel in 1980

    5. The SPARC Architecture • SPARC: • Scalable Processor ARChitecture • Programming Model • Instruction Set

    6. l2 i6 i0 i2 o6 l0 i4 l6 o0 o2 o4 l4 l7 l3 o3 i1 o1 i3 i7 o7 o5 l1 i5 l5 SPARC Programming Model Twenty-four “window” registers:

    7. Y (multiply step) g0 g2 g4 g6 PSR NZVC S –cwp- g5 g3 g1 g7 TBR WIM PC nPC SPARC Programming Model (cont.) Eight “global” registers, and control registers:

    8. SPARC Instruction Set • Load/Store operations • Arithmetic, logical and shift operations • Control transfer • Control register access • Floating point (or other coprocessor) operations

    9. Assembling and Linking • Use the GNU C compiler (gcc): % gcc -g prog.s -o prog

    10. Macros • Use m4 • Generic UNIX text macro processor

    11. Debugging • Use the GNU debugger (gdb): % gdb prog

    12. A First Example • Temperature conversion

    13. SPARC Program /* This program converts a temperature in Celcius to Fahrenheit. George Wells - 30 May 2003 */ offs = 32 /* Variables c and f are stored in %l0 and %l1 */ .global main main: mov 24, %l0! Initialize c = 24 mov 9, %o0! 9 into %o0 for multiplication mov %l0, %o1! c into %o1 for multiplication call .mul ! Result in %o0 nop ! Delay slot mov 5, %o1! 5 into %o1 for division call .div ! Result in %o0 nop ! Delay slot

    14. Example (cont.) ... add %o0, offs, %l1 ! f = result + offs mov 1, %g1! Trap dispatch ta 0 ! Trap to system