Conflict Management. Conflict. “Conflict is disagreement between two or more individuals or groups with each individuals or group trying to gain acceptance of its view or objectives over others”
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Three different types of conflicts :-
Intra-individual conflicts ( or Intra-personal ) occurs at personal level.
Inter- personal conflict occurs at group level
Organizational conflict occurs at organisation level.
1.Intra-individual or Intra-personal :-occurs at personal level. Also known as internalised conflict which is internal to the individual and perhaps the most difficult type of conflict to analyze. It represents a situation where an individual is in a problem of decision making within himself.
Reasons for intra-individual conflict
A number of competing needs and roles
A variety of different ways that drives and roles can be expressed
Many types of barriers which can be occur between the drive and the goal
Both positive and negative aspects attached to desired goals.
Intra individual form of conflict can be analyzed in terms of
Conflict from frustration :- It occurs when an individual’s goal directed behavior is blocked due to certain barriers before reaching a desired goal. Frustration usually triggers defense mechanisms in the individual and the individual normally reacts by physically or symbolically attacking the barrier or the cause of conflict.
Goal conflict:- It occurs where the attainment of one goal stop the possibility of accomplishing another. In goal conflict two or more motives block one another. Sub types are –
Approach- approach conflict
Avoidance –avoidance conflict
Approach – avoidance conflict
Approach- Approach conflict :- It emerges when the individual is motivated to approach two or more positive but mutually exclusive goals. The individual simultaneously wants both but he has to choose only one. The individual remains undecisive. As long as he is undecisive, approach- approach type of conflict is acting on this mind. But once the decision is taken , the conflict is get resolved.
2.Avoidance – Avoidance conflict :-It involves a choice between two mutually exclusive , painful , unattractive negative roles. Mental stress and anxiety is caused since the individual has to choose one out of the two negative alternative . He wants to avoid both but choosing one is compulsory . This conflict is painful for the individual in view of his inability to avoid either of the two goals.
3.Approach –avoidance conflict :-It involves both positive and negative feelings associated with attractive and repulsive features of the goal simultaneously . This type of conflict is most relevant to the analysis of organizational behaviour. For example :- promotion will give more status and money (approach) but it also involves transfer to remote place (avoidance) for which the individual repels from goal.
Role Conflict :- “The simultaneous occurrence of two or more role sending's such that compliance with one would made more difficult compliance with the other.
The two expectations are mutually contradictory.
If person is not clear about his job duties & when the person in role is not able to respond to the expectation of other person
Role Conflict :-Divided into five types-
Intra – sender conflict :- Takes place when the role sender demands two inconsistent behavioral pattern
Example:- M.D. of a pharmaceutical co. asks the Quality Control Manager to maintain high standard but simultaneously offers him incentives to ignore a critical problem situation where saline – glucose bottles are found to contain fungus unobservable to the naked eye.
Inter – sender conflict:-different role –set member may have conflicting expectation from a particular member
Example:- the boss ask the supervisor to exercise strict control over subordinate, but subordinate want loose supervision.
Inter – role conflict :-such conflicts arises when an individuals hold multiple & divergent roles
For example ,Women executives are trying to balance the interface between career and family roles.
Person – role conflict :-conflict occurs when person is asked to do a job which is incompatible with his own value system
For example , an executive may be forced to keep on oiling the wheels of a corrupt system but his moral values pinch and prohibit him from doing so.
Role – overload conflict :- Conflict takes place when qualitative as well as quantitative expectations related to particular role are highly demanding and the focal person feels short of time and resources to meet all standards of performance.
People in modern organizations usually experience intra – role and inter –role conflicts.
it arises when Two or more individuals are interacting with one another whereas difference of opinion between individuals about task related matter .
These conflicts are a serious problems to many people as they deeply affect a person’s emotions .
There is a need to protect one’s self image and self esteem damage by others.
Causes of Interpersonal conflict :-
Difference in perception
Difference in personality
Difference in value system
Difference in status
A. Internal conflict:
B. External conflict
8. Intergroup conflict
Thomas- kilmann conflict mode instrument
4. Compromising( you lose –I lose)