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Epileptic Seizure: prediction and prevention. Dan Coughlin Kevin McCabe Bob McCarthy Steve Moffett. Background. Epilepsy is a brain disease that triggers seizures Electroencephalograms (EEGs) read electrical impulses from the brain. Prediction. Methods. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs)

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epileptic seizure prediction and prevention

Epileptic Seizure: prediction and prevention

Dan CoughlinKevin McCabeBob McCarthySteve Moffett

  • Epilepsy is a brain disease that triggers seizures
  • Electroencephalograms (EEGs) read electrical impulses from the brain
  • Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs)
  • Support Vector Machines (SVM)
  • Fuzzy Logic
anns lyapunov s constant
ANNs – Lyapunov’s Constant
  • Impending epileptic epoch will lower chaos of brain waves
  • Lyapunov’s exponent can model the amount of chaos.
  • Exponent (normally positive) will decrease when seizure is coming
  • Zandi - correlation between the time intervals between positive zero crossings in the signal and an oncoming seizure
  • Use the probability density function, p(x), to model entropy and predict seizure
  • Represent the examples as points in space, mapped so the examples of the categories are as wide as possible
  • Use Cao’s method to classify each data series
fuzzy logic
Fuzzy Logic
  • Creates states in between 0 and 1.
  • Eg. “very low”, “low”, “medium”, “high”, “very high”.
  • This creates a better way to classify the risk of an epileptic seizure

Ex. Cold = 0, 1; Hot = 0, 1; Warm can be interpreted as Cold = 0, Hot = 0.

fuzzy logic9
Fuzzy Logic
  • Basic Structure
        • A fuzzifier, which converts crisp values (real time values) into fuzzy values.
        • An interference engine, that applies a fuzzy reasoning mechanism to obtain a fuzzy output
        • A defuzzifier, which translates this new output into crisp values
        • A knowledge base which contains both an ensemble of fuzzy rules known as rule base and an ensemble of membership functions know as database
fuzzy logic with hdt
Fuzzy Logic with HDT
  • Hierarchical Decision Trees
  • Greatly reduce miss-classification
  • Removes unnecessary computations from the system
  • Prevention of epileptic seizures through medications
  • Prevention of epileptic seizures through surgery and common practices
  • Preventing a seizure with the use of Biosensors
    • Vagus Nerve Stimulation
    • Purdue University – Nanotech Sensor
    • Glutamine-Glutamate Transfer
    • Electrical Pulses on Rats
  • Most Viable Method
  • Prevention using medications
    • Most Common Medications
      • Tegretol or Carbatrol (carbamazepine)
      • Zarontin (ethosuximide)
      • Valium and similar tranquilizers such as Klonopin or Tranxene
      • Anti-convulsion – Phenytoin also known as Dilantin
    • Common Side Effects
      • Slurred Speech
      • Nausea and Vomiting
      • Rash
      • Depression
      • Headache
      • Light Headed
  • Surgery
    • Not 100% effective
    • Can be effective if taken with medication
  • Common Practices
    • Ketogenic Diet
      • Low carbohydrate, high-fat diet
      • Get plenty of sleep
      • Avoid bright, flashing lights and other visual stimuli
      • Avoid video games, watching TV, drugs and alcohol
  • VNS – Vagus Nerve Stimulation (passes thru neck to brain)
    • Designed to prevent seizures by sending regular, mild pulses of electrical energy to the brain via the vagus nerve
    • Pulses supplied by a device similar to a pacemaker
    • Works for 30 seconds of stimulation followed by 5 minutes of no stimulation
      • Holding magnetic near devices activates it outside of its programmed interval
    • Stimulation Parameters
      • Stimulation amplitude, frequency, pulse width
      • Relieves side effects (pain) and controls seizure
  • Purdue University – Nanotech Sensor
    • Transmitter and battery implanted in the brain
    • Detects the signs of an epileptic seizure before it occurs
    • Data will be picked up by an external receiver not implanted under the scalp
    • Collect data specifically related to epileptic seizures from one thousand channels or locations in the brain
      • The more channels, the more parts of the brain to look at simultaneously
    • The electrodes that will get the data are inserted in the brain through holes made in the skull and are connected directly to the transmitter by the use of wires
    • Prevents an epileptic focal seizure
      • Researchers are creating a neuroprosthesis that dispenses a neurotransmitter called GABA that calms the brain once a seizure is detected
    • Electrode is coated with engineered neurons and once they are stimulated, will release the neurotransmitter to inhibit the seizure
  • Molecular Imaging Biosensor
    • Identifies excess amounts of neurotransmitter glutamate build up in brain tissue
    • Excess levels thought to be produced by dysfunctional “glutamate-glutamine shuttle”
    • Biological sensors being developed to detect glutamate levels from shuttle process
    • Using FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) imaging and electrical signals to detect evidence of alterations
    • If technology is feasible and shows that epileptic seizures occur from this imbalance, this will be a potential new therapeutic way to control epilepsy
  • Electric pulses used on rats
    • Supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) and The Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada
    • Electrical stimuli are applied to the neurons and in the Mossy Fibers of the rat
    • Early results show that this technique can prevent the upcoming electrical event
    • Successful suppression of these events is achieved using an extra cellular field stimulating electrode
  • Most Viable Method
    • VNS – Vagus Nerve Stimulation
      • Most reviews from patients say it has stopped their seizures all together
      • Those that have not stopped have experienced seizures less frequent and are mild compared to before implantation of the device
      • Some patients experience side effects such as a hoarse voice or speech impediments
      • In little cases, the device has not worked at all
overview of market products
Overview of Market/Products
  • Most epilepsy detection/prevention devices are not yet products, and lack marketable features such as mobility, and battery life.
  • Most effective devices are for stationary patients hooked up while in a bed or a lab
  • Tradeoff in available products, processing power versus battery life.
  • Prevention devices require implantable sensors, whereas detection devices can be found out of body.
types of products
Types of Products
  • Open Loop Implantable devices
  • Closed Loop Implantable devices
  • Seizure Detection while sleeping
  • Electrodermal Activity Sensor
  • Audio sensors
open loop vs closed loop devices
Open Loop vs Closed Loop Devices
  • Open Loop constantly provides electrical stimulus (usually to a particular nerve or brain region) to stave off seizures.
  • Open Loop are more mobile with less hardware required, less power requirements.
  • Closed Loop read in data from the body, and react with appropriate feedback response.
  • Closed Loop require more processing power/hardware, so primarily used at stationary locations.
available prevention detection products
Available Prevention/Detection Products
  • Emfit detects shaking movements/hyperventilation typical of seizures while sleeping
  • Placed on bed underneath sleeper, triggers alarm


available prevention detection products26
Available Prevention/Detection Products
  • Bed Sensor with Microphone to detect audible sounds sometimes associated with seizures


available prevention detection products27
Available Prevention/Detection Products

Electrodermal Activity Sensor measures skin conductance.

Electrodes sense change when seizure occurs .


  • Bezobrazova, S.; Golovko, V.; , "Comparative Analysis of Forecasting Neural Networks in the Application for Epilepsy Detection," Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications, 2007. IDAACS 2007. 4th IEEE Workshop on , vol., no., pp.202-206, 6-8 Sept. 2007
  • Zandi, A.S.; Dumont, G.A.; Javidan, M.; Tafreshi, R.; , "An entropy-based approach to predict seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy using scalp EEG," Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2009. EMBC 2009. Annual International Conference of the IEEE , vol., no., pp.228-231, 3-6 Sept. 2009
  • Ye Yuan; , "Detection of epileptic seizure based on EEG signals," Image and Signal Processing (CISP), 2010 3rd International Congress on , vol.9, no., pp.4209-4211, 16-18 Oct. 2010
  • Sukanesh, R.; Harikumar, R.; , "Fuzzy techniques and hierarchical aggregation functions decision trees for the classification of epilepsy risk levels from EEG signals," TENCON 2008 - 2008 IEEE Region 10 Conference , vol., no., pp.1-6, 19-21 Nov. 2008
  • "Vagus Nerve Stimulation | Epilepsy.com." Epilepsy and Seizure Information for Patients and Health Professionals | Epilepsy.com. Ed. Steven C. Schachter. 15 Dec. 2006. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. .
  • Reimer, Richard J. "Real-time Imaging of the Glutamine-Glutamate Shuttle in Epilepsy - Dana Foundation." Brain and Brain Research Information - Dana Foundation. Dec. 2006. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. .
  • Dalton, Anthony; "Detecting Epileptic Seizure Using Wearable Sensor Technologies"
  • http://ama-ieee.embs.org/wp- content/themes/ieee/papers/March%2023%20- %20PM/Dalton%20Abstract%2085.pdf
  • Hively, L.M.,Kruse, K.L., Munro, N.B., Protopopescu, V.A.; "Epilepsy Forewarning Using a Hand Held Device" Febrary 2005, http://www.ornl.gov/~webworks/cppr/y2005/rpt/122819.pdf