Transformation of GA’s Agriculture • GI Bill provided educational opportunities to veterans…men left the farm for school. • Better technology and farming methods led to less people needed to work on the farms. • Increase in synthetic materials led to a decrease in the demand for cotton,
Atlanta Develops • “Forward Atlanta Commission” was an advertising campaign that spent millions around the country. Telling the nation about the location, transportation, climate, resources and workforce. • In three years 800 new firms brought 17,000 new jobs to Atlanta. • Developed by Mayor Ivan Allen Jr.
Hartsfield and Allen • William B. Hartsfield was the first mayor to push for the development of a first class airport. • Ivan Allen, JR Was the leader of the Forward Atlanta Commission which focused on bringing growth and sports venues to Atlanta.
Ellis Arnall – Governor 1943-1947 • Ran for governor against Eugene Talmadge and promised reform. • First he reduced the power held by the governor. • Removed from controlling university and public education. • Gov could no longer pardon criminals. • Gov could no longer veto constitutional amendments
Ellis Arnall • Reduced the voting age to 18, GA was 1st in nation to lower it. • Rewrote the State Constitution to make it less confusing. • Got rid of the poll tax and the white primary. Blacks were now allowed to vote in GA’s primaries.
Three Governors Controversy • Eugene Talmadge was running unopposed for reelection in 1946, but he was in poor health. • He died before being sworn in: 1. M.E. Thompson was the Lt. Gov. but not sworn in yet. 2. Carmichael had 669 votes and Herman Talmadge had 617.
Three Governors Controversy • 58 votes that were not counted were found in Telfair County (Talmadge’s county). • Three men claimed the right to be governor. • M.E. Thompson was appointed acting gov for 2 years and Talmadge was elected in the next election.
Herman Talmadge • Like his father he promised a return of the white primary. • He fought hard to preserve the segregation of the races, but was unable to restore the white primary. • Created the first state sales tax and increased funding for education by 74%
Benjamin Mays • President of Morehouse College from 1940-1967. • While he was president enrollment doubled and its endowment quadrupled. • Became a mentor to MLK, suggested he study the teachings of Gandhi. • Local civil rights leader
1956 State Flag • Before 1956, the GA state flag did not have the Confederate Flag. • After 1956, it had the Confederate Flag. • Flag changed in protest of integration of schools and Federal laws.
Atlanta Develops • In 1956 Congress decided to build a 41,000 miles of highways • Atlanta was chosen as the southeastern hub • I-285 was built to surround Atlanta, furthering growth
Atlanta Develops – Hartsfield Airport • A new $20 million terminal helped make Atlanta’s airport on of the busiest in the nation. • Hartsfield-Jackson Airport is now the busiest airport in the world. • Brings business and people to GA
Atlanta Develops • “Forward Atlanta Commission” was an advertising campaign that spent millions around the country. • Telling the nation about the location, transportation, climate, resources and workforce. • Wanted to bring Sports Team to GA • Developed by Mayor Ivan Allen Jr.
Brown v Board of Education • 1954 Supreme Court Ruling that ended segregation in all schools stating that “separate facilities were not equal” • There was no date that school had to be desegregated, so many southern states delayed the equality. • Court said that this violated the 14th amendment
Martin Luther King Jr. • Created the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC): headquartered in Atlanta. • Nonviolent protest. • While in jail wrote “Letter from Birmingham Jail” • Said civil rights movement could not slow down; blacks were being beaten and killed.
Martin Luther King Jr. • Led the March on Washington were he gave the “I Have a Dream” speech. • March showed support for the Civil Rights Bill of 1964. • The bill passed.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) • Students began to protest Jim Crow Laws and segregation like MLK and SCLC. • Headquarters in Atlanta, GA. • Thought SCLC was too passive, SNCC was more militant. • Strained relationship between both groups.
Sibley Commission • GA General Assembly appointed a committee to “study” the effects of integration in schools. • Opened the door for desegregation to start in Georgia.
The Albany Movement • Created by SNCC in Albany, GA • Goal was to end segregation through negotiation instead of protest and demonstration. • Hundreds of blacks went to jail as they tested segregation laws. • Movement began to split over involvement of outside people like MLK.
The Albany Movement • Movement fails • People lose enthusiasm and money for being arrested. • Many of the lessons learned would lead to success with future demonstrations and civil disobedience.
Hamilton Holmes & Charlayne Hunter • First two black students to attend the University of Georgia. • Holmes became a physician and Hunter became a journalist.
March on Washington • 250,000 people marched on Washington to show support for the Civil Rights Act of 1964. • Highlighted by MLK’s “I Have a Dream” speech
Civil Rights Act • 1964 • Prohibited racial discrimination in employment and labor unions and in public facilities, such as swimming pools and playgrounds. • Private businesses could not deny service to any race.
Maynard Jackson • Elected Mayor of Atlanta, 1973. • First black man elected mayor of a major southern city.
Andrew Young • First black man in GA elected to congress since Reconstruction. • US ambassador for the United Nations. • Top Aide of MLK, Jr. • Important in bringing the Olympics to Atlanta.
Lester Maddox • Outspoken segregationist. • GA’s governor in 1967. • Told white parents to send kids to private schools instead of desegregated public schools. • Claimed the civil rights movement was controlled by liberals and communists.
Jimmy Carter (Slide 1 of 2) • Became governor in 1970. • Ran on a platform of ending segregation, modernize state government, and better serve the people of the state. • 1976 1st Georgian to become president of the USA. • Stressed honesty and restoring confidence in government.
Jimmy Carter (Slide 2 of 2) • Received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002. • Recognized his decades of work for finding peaceful solutions to international conflicts. • MLK, Jr. & Carter BOTH received the Nobel Peace Prize. • Created Habitat for Humanity: build/fix houses in underprivileged areas.
1996 Summer Olympics (Slide 1 of 2) • Atlanta prepared for the games for 5 years. • Olympic Stadium was renamed Turner Field and is used by the Braves. • Provided a huge boost for GA’s economy.
1996 Summer Olympics (Slide 2 of 2) • Left Georgia with several legacies and sports venues. • Turner Field: Olympic Stadium • Olympic Torch Still Mounted at Turned Field • Centennial Olympic Park
Professional sports • Braves, Falcons, Hawks, and Thrashers. • The teams give hundreds of people jobs and help generate business for the teams, cities, Marta, and downtown businesses.
New Immigrant Communities • Provides a larger tax paying population. • Each ethnic group assimilates into GA’s culture, but also contributes by sharing their own traditions. • The largest growing sector of immigrant communities is Hispanic.
County Unit System • A special formula for counting votes in primary elections of the democratic party. • Applied for only state wide elections like governor or US Senator. • Went to keep political power in the rural area and not the growing urban areas. • Most votes in a county won that county. • Whoever won the most counties won the election. • Not the statewide vote winner
Reapportionment • The redrawing of voting districts every 10 years. • GA was forced to do it after the County Unit System in 1963 • Ruled a violation of the 14th Amendment voters rights.