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Chapter 4: Server Installation. Learning Objectives. Make advance preparations to install Windows NT 4.0 Server, including listing hardware information and making decisions regarding installation setup parameters Create an emergency repair disk

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Learning objectives
Learning Objectives

  • Make advance preparations to install Windows NT 4.0 Server, including listing hardware information and making decisions regarding installation setup parameters

  • Create an emergency repair disk

  • Perform NT Server installation using different methods

  • Troubleshoot installation problems

  • Remove Windows NT Server

Advance preparations
Advance Preparations

  • Information about what hardware components are installed

  • Information about where the operating system files will be installed

  • The name of the server

  • An installed NIC

Server hardware components
Server Hardware Components

  • Compile a list of hardware component information

  • Record the basic input/output system (BIOS) configuration settings

  • Make sure you have most up-to-date drives for hardware (SCSI adapters, RAID drives, NIC, CD-ROM drives)

  • If installing on SMP, obtain most recent copy of the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL)

Making decisions in advance
Making Decisions in Advance

  • How to partition the disk(s)

  • What file system(s) to use

  • Where system files will be located

  • What the server name will be

  • What the password for the Administrator account will be

  • What protocol(s) will be selected

  • What the domain name will be

  • How the server will function

Disk partition selection
Disk Partition Selection

  • Partitioning: A process in which a hard disk section or a complete hard disk is set up for use by an operating system

    • Makes one drive act like several smaller disks

    • Partitions generally are drive letters (C:, D:, etc.).

  • Formatting: An operation that marks small disk sections (blocks or tracks and sectors) for use by a specific file system

  • Dual boot system
    Dual Boot System

    • Dual-boot system: A computer set up to boot from two or more different operating systems, such as Windows NT Server and MS-DOS

      • Take filesystems into account

        • ex. MS-DOS can’t read NTFS without special software

    Nt server file systems
    NT Server File Systems

    • NTFS recommended over FAT file system

      • Offers best security, performance, and file handling for network users

      • Offers logging and file compression

    File location and nt directory name
    File Location and NT Directory Name

    • Critical with dual-boot system

      • Use separate directory for each operating system

    • System files in root directory of boot disk in folder called \winnt (default)

      • Other people may support server

      • NT software utilities anticipate Winnt folder

    Server name guidelines
    Server Name Guidelines

    • Relatively short and easy to type

    • Descriptive of server’s function or reflective of organization that uses it

    • Easy to remember and use

    • Not already used by another network computer

    Administrator account password
    Administrator Account Password

    • Select a password that is difficult to guess

    • Avoid using information that can be identified with you

    • Use a long password (Windows NT Server accepts up to 14 characters)

    Protocol selection
    Protocol Selection

    • NetBEUI

      • Small nonrouted networks of under 200

    • TCP/IP

      • Larger or routed network

      • Internet connectivity

    • Client Service for NetWare (CSNW) and NWLink

      • Gateway to NetWare

    Server domains
    Server Domains

    • Used to identify users, check their authorizations, and give access to resources

    • Simplify server management

    • Consist of clients and resources

      • Clients: User accounts and user groups

      • Resources: File servers, print servers, etc. used by clients

    • Can support as many as 40,000 objects, 26,000 users, and 250 groups

    Server functions
    Server Functions

    • Primary domain controller (PDC)

    • Backup domain controller (BDC)

    • Member server

    • Standalone server

    Primary domain controller pdc
    Primary Domain Controller (PDC)

    • Acts as the master server when there are two or more NT servers on a network

    • Holds the master database (called the security accounts manager, or SAM) of user accounts and access privileges

    Backup domain controller bdc
    Backup Domain Controller (BDC)

    • Acts as a backup to the primary domain controller

    • Has a copy of the SAM database containing user account and access privilege information

    • Offers fault tolerance

    Backing up the pdc with bdcs
    Backing Up the PDC with BDCs





    Primary SAM Backup SAM Backup SAM Backup SAM

    Domain resources

    Member servers and standalone servers
    Member Servers and Standalone Servers

    • Member servers

      • No account logon verification

      • Used as a special-purpose server, such as a database server

    • Standalone servers

      • Not part of an existing domain

      • ex., for testing, or personal use, etc.

    Creating an emergency repair disk erd
    Creating an Emergency Repair Disk (ERD)

    • Created when you install Windows NT and updated after the installation

    • Contains repair, diagnostic, and backup information in case there is a problem with Windows NT

    Installation options
    Installation Options

    • Floppy disk and CD-ROM

    • Network installation

    • Network Client Administrator installation

    • Unattended installation

    Command line switches for winnt exe winnt32 exe





    /I:initialization filename







    /U:script file


    Command-line Switches for WINNT.EXE & WINNT32.EXE

    Floppy disk and cd rom installation
    Floppy Disk and CD-ROM Installation

    • One of most common ways to start Windows NT Server setup

      • Three floppies containing bare-bones system

      • CD holds remainder of system, more drivers, etc.

      • Can make boot floppies from CD on another machine (handy!)

    Network installation
    Network Installation

    • Enable installation from a shared network directory on another computer

    • Useful if your computer lacks CD-ROM drive

    • Useful if you operate a large network and plan to implement many NT servers

    • Fast and consistent

    Network client administrator installation
    Network Client Administrator Installation

    • Enables installation even if prospective server computer has no operating system

    • Boot floppy contains just enough of the OS to be able to get on the network and get the rest

    Unattended installation
    Unattended Installation

    • Usually performed over the network

    • Enables specification of a set of parameters before installation begins

      • Answer file

      • Uniqueness database file (UDF)

    • Not recommended for creating servers; saves time when setting up multiple Windows NT workstations

    Stepping through an installation floppy disk and cd rom
    Stepping Through an Installation (Floppy Disk and CD-ROM)

    • Part 1

      • Character-based Setup screens

    • Part 2

      • Graphical display using Windows-based dialog boxes

    Installation part 1 text based
    Installation Part 1 (Text-based)

    • Detects hardware

      • Loads installation files onto the computer

      • Asks about disk partitioning/formatting choices

      • May require disk from peripheral manufacturer for special drivers

    Installation part 2 graphical
    Installation Part 2 (Graphical)

    • Enables configuration of information specific to the server

      • Registration information

      • Server name

      • Server type

      • NIC setup

    Troubleshooting installation problems preventive steps
    Troubleshooting Installation Problems: Preventive Steps

    • Purchase a processor and hardware components that are on Microsoft’s HCL

    • Test hardware before installing Windows NT

    • Compile and record information about hardware components and BIOS setup

    • Run comprehensive test of hard disk

    Problems with hardware drivers or actual hardware
    Problems with Hardware Drivers or Actual Hardware

    • Setup did not find any mass storage devices on the computer or there is an inaccessible boot drive

    • There is a disk error on one of the three floppy setup disks

    • A problem is reported with HAL.DLL

      • Especially on multiprocessor systems

  • The installation fails when installing the network components

  • continued

    Problems with hardware drivers or actual hardware1
    Problems with Hardware Drivers or Actual Hardware

    • A problem is reported with NTOSKRNL.EXE

    • A device driver is not available in Setup for a given component

      • May be able to install OS and install device driver later

  • A STOP message appears during the installation

    • Can be tough to diagnose

  • Uninstalling windows nt server
    Uninstalling Windows NT Server

    • Necessary when new server hardware is purchased and you want to pass along the old hardware to someone else

      • licensing restriction, anti-piracy

    • In essence, simply blow away the contents of the drive

      • re-format, re-partition, or combination

      • …making sure you save user data first.

    Chapter summary
    Chapter Summary

    • With advance preparation, installation of Windows NT 4.0 Server is likely to be trouble-free.

      • Record information about server hardware

      • Have current drivers for hardware in the server


    Chapter summary1
    Chapter Summary

    • Make important decisions before you start the installation.

      • Disk partition selection

      • File system

      • File location and directory name

      • Names for the server and its domain

      • Administrator account password

      • Protocol selection

      • Emergency Repair Disk (ERD)


    Chapter summary2
    Chapter Summary

    • Select appropriate installation method.

      • Floppy disks and CD-ROM

      • Network installation

      • Network Client Administrator installation

      • Unattended installation