Shrimp Improvement Systems. The Importance of shrimp. broodstock and PL quality for successful and sustainable shrimp farming. Dean M Akiyama. David A Leong. Shrimp Improvement Systems, India. What is the major constraint for commercial shrimp. farming sustainability?. - Environment?.
The Importance of shrimp
broodstock and PL quality forsuccessful and sustainable shrimp farming
Dean M Akiyama
David A Leong
Shrimp Improvement Systems, India
- Production system?
- Feed & Feed Resources?
- Market demand?
Shrimp farmer profitability is critical
for continued growth of the shrimp
- Hatchery: Production of consistent quality seed
- Production: Consistent & predictable harvests
- Feed: Production of consistent quality feed
- Genetics: Production of consistent quality broodstock
and the improvement of commercially important traits
- Disease: Solutions for hatchery and farming
- Market: Access and demand
Greed of the farmer always
overcomes the need for controland predictability of harvests
good model for shrimp. It is the most advanced andsophisticated of all animal
25 C with 85% humidity??
- Cooling panel (water fall) to lower temperature
- Fan to pull air past water assisted cooling panel
and through house. Also remove excess nitrogen.
Replace litter after every cycle to remove feces and
75% of all chickens can feed at the same time
40 broilers per feeder
8 broilers per water nipple
20 kg per m, not number of birds
“Guaranteed” production by Breeder Company and Local Distributor
• Cycle period:
• Final size:
• Survival Rate:
• Dressing weight:
chicken house, than tochange the chicken.
Henry Saglio, Geneticist
PL10 stocked in raceways with minimum 6 ppm DO,
stabile temperature and pH, will reach 35 g in 100
Siblings stocked in pond vs perimeter cages
ADG 0.18 vs 0.25 (39%)
efficiencies and the
reduce the cost ofproduction. This is anever ending process.
Vannamei : Chicken : Lowest cost
Monodon : Turkey : Largest
Stylirostris : Duck : Sweetest
• SIS Florida; 1998
- Nucleus Breeding Center for Penaeus vannamei, the Pacific white shrimp. All of SIS P. vannamei stocks originate from Florida.
- Broodstock multiplication with capacity to produce and ship
about 120,000 commercial broodstock annually.
• SIS Singapore; 2005
- Broodstock multiplication with capacity to produce and ship about 150,000 commercial broodstock annually.
• SIS Hawaii; 2006
- Nucleus Breeding Center for Penaeus monodon, the black tiger prawn and Penaeus stylirostris, the blue shrimp.
- Broodstock multiplication with capacity to produce and ship about 250,000 commercial broodstock annually.
• SIS India; 2012
- Shrimp hatchery for P Vannamei.
Major genetic discoveries based on tracking of genetic line
performance from strategic alliances with integrated farms,
hatcheries and processing plants
• 15 years of commercial genetic improvement and research.
• Pure lines selected for specific traits over 20 generations.
• Inter- and intra-familiar selection for growth, disease resistance,
reproductive capacity and general hardiness.
• 12 breeding sessions per year, each one with 40 families. 480 full-
pedigree families created and evaluated each year.
• Genetic advantage is calculated from the results of field and lab performance tests and pedigree information.
• The best families from each breeding session are used to generate
families for the next generation.
• Working on lines that exhibit resistance to multiple pathogens; i.e.
TSV and IMNV.
in each breeding session
Families divided into two groups
Siblings for disease challenges & field evaluations
SPF siblings maintained atNucleus Breeding Center (NBC)
Disease challenge (off-site)
Top performing families
Discard survivors(never return to NBC)
Top families fast-tracked
Genetically Improved Stocks
4 to 7 Months
40 g +
0 to PL-20
PL-20 to 8 g
5 to 40 g +
Family selection for
Intra and Inter-family
Inter and intra-family
mating rate and
for Growth, Disease
selection for Growth
Virus challenge selection primarily for TSV and IMNV
Water from commercial production ponds are pumped through
Microcosm tank system.
Family selections made at commercial farm site
Selected families stocked in commercial production pond
Quality factors for broodstock quality are notclearly defined but rapidly improving.
- Genetic pedigree most critical
- Virus free (SPF plus)
- Stabile production conditions from PL to harvest
- Age and size
- Minimum 38g female and 35g male
: 4 weeks for 40hr transport stress
2 weeks for 10hr transport stress
• Specific Pathogen Free Stock refers to thehealth status of a stock and not a genetic
characteristic. To be SPF a shrimp must befree of all “known” shrimp virus.
• Specific Pathogen Resistant Shrimp refers toa Genetic characteristic- being resistant to aspecific pathogen (not general disease).
• All commercial broodstock are SPR to somedegree but all may not be SPF.
• Resistance comes in the genes, it isNOT developed by exposure to pathogens. Resistance genes are already present in the genome of the species.
• Selection for disease resistance aims to find and
concentrate these genes in the animal.
• Challenge tests are run on siblings or progeny in order to gather information. Never on the animals that are used commercial or breeding broodstock.
• By applying these principles, SIS has broodstock which
are virus free, SPF and SPR.
• INDIA, for every shipment , samples are taken and sent to University of Arizona.
• Routinely every 3 months, shrimp samples are collected
from SIS facilities.
• Samples are submitted to independent and Government recognized pathology laboratories.
- Dr Don Lightner, University Arizona; Florida, Hawaii, Singapore
- US Federal Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS); Florida
- Hawaii State Aquatic Veterinarian Service; Hawaii
- Agri Food and Veterinary Authority Of Singapore; Singapore
• Samples are analyzed for all the diseases and viruses as specified by USMSFP and OIE.
• Documented 15 year history of certified SPF status.
• Authorized supplier of broodstock and PLs into India, Indonesia, Thailand, China, Vietnam, Malaysia,
Philippines, South Africa, Brazil, Ecuador, Venezuela,
Belize, Honduras, Panama, Surinam, Jamaica, Puerto
Rico, Cuba and USA.
• Authorized to supply SPF PLs and broodstock to US
growers in Texas, Alabama, and South Carolina.
• Annually certified by State of Florida as compliant with
Best Management Practices.
- Survival rate
• Pond Production
- Growth rate
– Survival rate
– CV size
• Biosecurity is all of the procedures used to
protect living organisms from contracting,carrying, and spreading diseases.
• These include Isolation of site, Traffic controlof vehicle and people, Sanitation and Disease
• A proven history is the only evidence of
commitment and dedication to biosecurity.
• All shrimp reared indoors, protected from birds, crabs and feral animals.
• Restrict visitors and then everyone entering facility must change
to SIS clothing and foot ware.
• Vehicle tire bath, footbaths and hand washing stations at entry
into each separate culture area.
• Entire facility encircled by chain link fence and crab barriers.
• Water source is a fossil seawater well. Water is aseptic, except
for some anaerobic sulfur bacteria.
• All effluents are chlorinated and diverted to dispersion wells. No
effluent is released into the environment.
NBC - indoors
• Are local produced broodstocks from a biosecure facility from maturation to broodstock harvest?
• Without a reliable genetic selection program, what is
the animal performance loss in pond production per
• The cost savings of broodstock for the hatchery is insignificant relative to the risk of farm failure.
• The fastest way to spread and transmit a disease is through infected broodstock and PLs. Essential to
secure reliable and consistent source of virus free
broodstock and PLs.
Quality factors for shrimp post larvae are
routine and common industry knowledge.
- Size variation
- Activity level
- Luminescent bacteria
- Gut-muscle ratio
- Muscle Clarity
- Stress tests
However, there are other factors which also
affect PL quality.
PL6 gill development not complete. Depends on
growth rate but between PL8-10.
Gill development required for DO andosmoregulation : minimize stress.
30 ppt to 5 ppt for 2 hours
2011 - 2013 pond performance data from 18,000
harvested ponds (2,500-5,000 m per pond)
• Only ponds which were from one broodstock family
and harvested from one hatchery tank were being
analyzed (9,500 ponds)
• Hatchery tanks harvested, 8,500 tanks producing
5-8 million PL10 per tank (55 billion PLs)
• PL length and SD/CV adjusted to PL10 parameters
• Growth rate in hatchery (PL ADG) was the PL
length divided by total time
• Harvested biomass adjusted to 100 days in 1 ha pond area
• Low category fall approximately about 25% of the lowest data
• Medium take approximately 50% of the mid range data High
• High categories were the top 25% of the data
Hatchery SR (%)
SR < 57.7
57.7 ≤ SR < 81
81 ≤ SR < 100
PL Length (mm)
Lgth < 8.95
8.95 ≤ Lgth < 9.52
9.52 ≤ Lgth < 11.35
ADG < 0.5688
0.5688 ≤ DG < 0.6175
0.6175 ≤ DG < 0.7129
CV < 4.5
4.5 ≤ CV < 6.68
6.68 ≤ CV < 12.45
rate in hatchery (2010-13)
Number of ponds
High hatchery SR produces better biomass, MBW and ADG in
ponds but not affect survival rate.
length in hatchery (2010-13)
Number of ponds
PL10 Length does have positive correlation with pond performance but
no affect on survival.
(ADG) in hatchery (2010-13)
Number of ponds
Better animal growth rate in hatchery had positive correlation with pond performance. This correlation was better than PL length alone.
Number of ponds
Better animal CV size in the hatchery had positive correlation to
pond performance but no affect on survival.
hatchery performance (2010-11)
Number of tanks
Flushed tanks (%)
PL10 length (mm)
CV size PL10
Compared hatchery tanks were stocked with same family.
Number of ponds
Harvested biomass (MT/ha)
• Hatchery tank survival rate, PL10 length, PL10 ADG,
CV size and luminescent bacteria all affected pond
performance but not pond survival rate.
• Pond survival rate is not a reliable pond performance parameter because difficult to know exactly how PLs have been stocked.
• PLs has been estimated to have 10-20% influence on
pond production. Success is highly dependant on
• All other parameters such as stress tests, necrosis,
gut muscle ratio, etc…. had no correlation to pond
• All tested PLs were virus free.
The production of consistent quality post larvaerequires a “Commitment to Quality” and
discipline to implement a quality assurance
- Virus free: nauplii, PL3, PL8
- Minimum tank survival rate: 30%
- CV size less than 7
- Minimum ADG: 9 mm PL10
- Luminescent bacteria free
Must reject or flush tank if less than standard.
• Fast growth
• Uniform harvest size
• Resistance to diseases: TSV
and increasingly IMNV
• High fecundity
• Virus free broodstocks for