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Shrimp Improvement Systems. The Importance of shrimp. broodstock and PL quality for successful and sustainable shrimp farming. Dean M Akiyama. David A Leong. Shrimp Improvement Systems, India. What is the major constraint for commercial shrimp. farming sustainability?. - Environment?.

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slide1

Shrimp Improvement Systems

The Importance of shrimp

broodstock and PL quality forsuccessful and sustainable shrimp farming

Dean M Akiyama

David A Leong

Shrimp Improvement Systems, India

slide2

What is the major constraint for commercial shrimp

farming sustainability?

- Environment?

- Production system?

- Feed & Feed Resources?

- Disease?

- Market demand?

- Other?

2

slide3

What is the major constraint for commercial shrimp

farming sustainability?

Shrimp farmer profitability is critical

for continued growth of the shrimp

culture industry.

3

slide4

What are the basic foundationtechnologies for commercial

shrimp farming?

- Hatchery: Production of consistent quality seed

- Production: Consistent & predictable harvests

- Feed: Production of consistent quality feed

- Genetics: Production of consistent quality broodstock

and the improvement of commercially important traits

- Disease: Solutions for hatchery and farming

- Market: Access and demand

4

slide5

Human Nature

Greed of the farmer always

overcomes the need for controland predictability of harvests

slide6

The chicken industry is a

good model for shrimp. It is the most advanced andsophisticated of all animal

production industries.

6

slide7

Broiler Production Predictability

25 C with 85% humidity??

- Cooling panel (water fall) to lower temperature

- Fan to pull air past water assisted cooling panel

and through house. Also remove excess nitrogen.

Replace litter after every cycle to remove feces and

bacteria

slide8

Broiler Production Predictability

75% of all chickens can feed at the same time

40 broilers per feeder

8 broilers per water nipple

20 kg per m, not number of birds

slide9

Broiler Production Predictability

“Guaranteed” production by Breeder Company and Local Distributor

• Cycle period:

35 days

• Final size:

2.2 kg

• FCR:

1.5

• Survival Rate:

96%

• Dressing weight:

67%

slide10

It is easier to change the

chicken house, than tochange the chicken.

Henry Saglio, Geneticist

10

slide11

Controlled Production Systems

PL10 stocked in raceways with minimum 6 ppm DO,

stabile temperature and pH, will reach 35 g in 100

days.

Siblings stocked in pond vs perimeter cages

ADG 0.18 vs 0.25 (39%)

slide12

We must always strive to improve technical

efficiencies and the

reduce the cost ofproduction. This is anever ending process.

12

slide13

Alternative Species

Vannamei : Chicken : Lowest cost

Monodon : Turkey : Largest

Stylirostris : Duck : Sweetest

slide15

SIS has 4 Production Facilities

• SIS Florida; 1998

- Nucleus Breeding Center for Penaeus vannamei, the Pacific white shrimp. All of SIS P. vannamei stocks originate from Florida.

- Broodstock multiplication with capacity to produce and ship

about 120,000 commercial broodstock annually.

• SIS Singapore; 2005

- Broodstock multiplication with capacity to produce and ship about 150,000 commercial broodstock annually.

• SIS Hawaii; 2006

- Nucleus Breeding Center for Penaeus monodon, the black tiger prawn and Penaeus stylirostris, the blue shrimp.

- Broodstock multiplication with capacity to produce and ship about 250,000 commercial broodstock annually.

• SIS India; 2012

- Shrimp hatchery for P Vannamei.

slide16

Shrimp Improvement Systems Genetic Program

Major genetic discoveries based on tracking of genetic line

performance from strategic alliances with integrated farms,

hatcheries and processing plants

slide17

Shrimp Improvement Systems

Breeding Program

• 15 years of commercial genetic improvement and research.

• Pure lines selected for specific traits over 20 generations.

• Inter- and intra-familiar selection for growth, disease resistance,

reproductive capacity and general hardiness.

• 12 breeding sessions per year, each one with 40 families. 480 full-

pedigree families created and evaluated each year.

• Genetic advantage is calculated from the results of field and lab performance tests and pedigree information.

• The best families from each breeding session are used to generate

families for the next generation.

• Working on lines that exhibit resistance to multiple pathogens; i.e.

TSV and IMNV.

slide18

Genetic Family Selection

Original families

in each breeding session

Families divided into two groups

Siblings for disease challenges & field evaluations

SPF siblings maintained atNucleus Breeding Center (NBC)

Data from

field evaluations

Disease challenge (off-site)

Top performing families

Discard survivors(never return to NBC)

Top families fast-tracked

to broodstock

Genetically Improved Stocks

To Customers

slide19

Phases of SIS Breeding Program

I. MATURATION

II. HATCHERY

III. NURSERY

IV. GROWOUT

~2 Months

1 Month

2 Months

4 to 7 Months

40 g +

0 to PL-20

PL-20 to 8 g

5 to 40 g +

Family selection for

Intra and Inter-family

Performance testing

Inter and intra-family

mating rate and

selection for

for Growth, Disease

selection for Growth

fecundity

hardiness

resistance and

general hardiness

slide20

Disease Challenge Facilities

Virus challenge selection primarily for TSV and IMNV

slide21

Commercial Farm Microcosm Testing Facilities

Water from commercial production ponds are pumped through

Microcosm tank system.

slide22

Commercial Farm Cage Testing Facilities

Family selections made at commercial farm site

slide23

Commercial Farm Cage Testing Facilities

Selected families stocked in commercial production pond

slide24

Broodstock Quality

Quality factors for broodstock quality are notclearly defined but rapidly improving.

- Genetic pedigree most critical

- Virus free (SPF plus)

- Stabile production conditions from PL to harvest

- Age and size

- Minimum 38g female and 35g male

- Acclimation

: 4 weeks for 40hr transport stress

2 weeks for 10hr transport stress

slide25

Definition of SPF

• Specific Pathogen Free Stock refers to thehealth status of a stock and not a genetic

characteristic. To be SPF a shrimp must befree of all “known” shrimp virus.

• Specific Pathogen Resistant Shrimp refers toa Genetic characteristic- being resistant to aspecific pathogen (not general disease).

• All commercial broodstock are SPR to somedegree but all may not be SPF.

slide26

Specific Pathogen Resistance (SPR)

• Resistance comes in the genes, it isNOT developed by exposure to pathogens. Resistance genes are already present in the genome of the species.

• Selection for disease resistance aims to find and

concentrate these genes in the animal.

• Challenge tests are run on siblings or progeny in order to gather information. Never on the animals that are used commercial or breeding broodstock.

• By applying these principles, SIS has broodstock which

are virus free, SPF and SPR.

slide27

Routine Disease Monitoring

• INDIA, for every shipment , samples are taken and sent to University of Arizona.

• Routinely every 3 months, shrimp samples are collected

from SIS facilities.

• Samples are submitted to independent and Government recognized pathology laboratories.

- Dr Don Lightner, University Arizona; Florida, Hawaii, Singapore

- US Federal Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS); Florida

- Hawaii State Aquatic Veterinarian Service; Hawaii

- Agri Food and Veterinary Authority Of Singapore; Singapore

• Samples are analyzed for all the diseases and viruses as specified by USMSFP and OIE.

slide28

SIS “Virus Free” Status

• Documented 15 year history of certified SPF status.

• Authorized supplier of broodstock and PLs into India, Indonesia, Thailand, China, Vietnam, Malaysia,

Philippines, South Africa, Brazil, Ecuador, Venezuela,

Belize, Honduras, Panama, Surinam, Jamaica, Puerto

Rico, Cuba and USA.

• Authorized to supply SPF PLs and broodstock to US

growers in Texas, Alabama, and South Carolina.

• Annually certified by State of Florida as compliant with

Best Management Practices.

slide29

SIS Critical Performance Criteria

SIS Values

2006

2014

• Maturation

- Nauplii/female/month

350,000

700-800,000

• Hatchery

- Survival rate

45%

55-75%

• Pond Production

- Growth rate

0.14 g/d

0.18-0.25 g/d

– Survival rate

70-80%

75-85%

– CV size

18%

> 12%

slide30

Biosecurity is Critical

• Biosecurity is all of the procedures used to

protect living organisms from contracting,carrying, and spreading diseases.

• These include Isolation of site, Traffic controlof vehicle and people, Sanitation and Disease

surveillance procedures.

• A proven history is the only evidence of

commitment and dedication to biosecurity.

slide31

Biosecurity Protocols at Nucleus Breeding Center

• All shrimp reared indoors, protected from birds, crabs and feral animals.

• Restrict visitors and then everyone entering facility must change

to SIS clothing and foot ware.

• Vehicle tire bath, footbaths and hand washing stations at entry

into each separate culture area.

• Entire facility encircled by chain link fence and crab barriers.

• Water source is a fossil seawater well. Water is aseptic, except

for some anaerobic sulfur bacteria.

• All effluents are chlorinated and diverted to dispersion wells. No

effluent is released into the environment.

slide33

Biosecurity

NBC - indoors

Water filtration

slide35

INDIA produced broodstocks: F2

• Are local produced broodstocks from a biosecure facility from maturation to broodstock harvest?

• Without a reliable genetic selection program, what is

the animal performance loss in pond production per

generation? 10%?

• The cost savings of broodstock for the hatchery is insignificant relative to the risk of farm failure.

• The fastest way to spread and transmit a disease is through infected broodstock and PLs. Essential to

secure reliable and consistent source of virus free

broodstock and PLs.

slide36

Quality Post Larvae

Quality factors for shrimp post larvae are

routine and common industry knowledge.

- Necrosis

- Size variation

- Deformities

- Activity level

- Luminescent bacteria

- Gut-muscle ratio

- Ectoparasites

- Chromatophores

- Muscle Clarity

- Stress tests

However, there are other factors which also

affect PL quality.

slide37

Post Larvae Required Age for

Gill Development

PL6 gill development not complete. Depends on

growth rate but between PL8-10.

Gill development required for DO andosmoregulation : minimize stress.

Survival

PL6

78%

PL10

85%

slide38

Effect of PL age for salinity stress test:

30 ppt to 5 ppt for 2 hours

PL Age

Harvested

SurvivalRate

Tanks

6

5

52

8

3

77

10

7

94

slide39

Gill Development Sequence

Pl-6

Pl-8

Adult

Pl-10

slide40

PL quality parameters to Pond

Performance

2011 - 2013 pond performance data from 18,000

harvested ponds (2,500-5,000 m per pond)

• Only ponds which were from one broodstock family

and harvested from one hatchery tank were being

analyzed (9,500 ponds)

• Hatchery tanks harvested, 8,500 tanks producing

5-8 million PL10 per tank (55 billion PLs)

• PL length and SD/CV adjusted to PL10 parameters

• Growth rate in hatchery (PL ADG) was the PL

length divided by total time

• Harvested biomass adjusted to 100 days in 1 ha pond area

slide41

Segmentation of Hatchery

Parameters

• Low category fall approximately about 25% of the lowest data

• Medium take approximately 50% of the mid range data High

• High categories were the top 25% of the data

Hatchery Parameter

Low (25%)

Medium (50%)

High (25%)

Hatchery SR (%)

SR < 57.7

57.7 ≤ SR < 81

81 ≤ SR < 100

PL Length (mm)

Lgth < 8.95

8.95 ≤ Lgth < 9.52

9.52 ≤ Lgth < 11.35

ADG (mm/day)

ADG < 0.5688

0.5688 ≤ DG < 0.6175

0.6175 ≤ DG < 0.7129

CV (%)

CV < 4.5

4.5 ≤ CV < 6.68

6.68 ≤ CV < 12.45

slide42

Pond performance based on survival

rate in hatchery (2010-13)

Hatchery Parameter

<58%

58-81%

82-100%

Number of ponds

2,018

4,042

2,012

Biomass (MT/ha)

12.40b

12.53b

12.60a

MBW (g)

18.37b

18.51a

18.59a

ADG

0.184b

0.185a

0.186a

Survival (%)

79.4a

79.4a

79.0a

High hatchery SR produces better biomass, MBW and ADG in

ponds but not affect survival rate.

slide43

Pond performance based on PL10

length in hatchery (2010-13)

Hatchery Parameter

<8.95

8.95-9.52

9.53-11.35

Number of ponds

2,012

4,431

2,083

Biomass (MT/ha)

12.44b

12.47b

12.74a

MBW (g)

18.33b

18.39b

18.86a

ADG

0.183b

0.184b

0.189a

Survival (%)

79.1a

79.4a

79.4a

PL10 Length does have positive correlation with pond performance but

no affect on survival.

slide44

Pond performance based on growth

(ADG) in hatchery (2010-13)

Hatchery Parameter

<0.57

0.57-0.62

0.63-0.71

Number of ponds

2,063

4,310

2,153

Biomass (MT/ha)

12.24c

12.49b

12.85a

MBW (g)

18.28c

18.43b

18.82a

ADG

0.183c

0.184b

0.188a

Survival (%)

78.8b

79.4a

79.5a

Better animal growth rate in hatchery had positive correlation with pond performance. This correlation was better than PL length alone.

slide45

Pond performance based on CV in

hatchery (2010-13)

Hatchery Parameter

<4.5

4.5-6.7

6.8-12.5

Number of ponds

2,146

4,185

2,140

Biomass (MT/ha)

12.69a

12.66a

12.08b

MBW (g)

18.60a

18.54a

18.31b

ADG

0.186a

0.185a

0.183b

Survival (%)

79.5a

79.2a

79.2a

Better animal CV size in the hatchery had positive correlation to

pond performance but no affect on survival.

slide46

Luminescent bacteria affect on

hatchery performance (2010-11)

Hatchery Parameter

Lumbac

No Lumbac

Number of tanks

614

605

Flushed tanks (%)

14.4%

6.0%

Survival (%)

63.19a

62.25a

PL10 length (mm)

9.14b

9.25a

ADG PL10

0.54b

0.55a

CV size PL10

5.38a

5.50a

Compared hatchery tanks were stocked with same family.

slide47

Luminescent bacteria affect on pond

performance (2010-11)

Hatchery Parameter

Lumbac

No Lumbac

Number of ponds

2,305

5,933

Harvested biomass (MT/ha)

10.97b

11.44a

MBW (g)

17.7b

18.2a

ADG

0.177b

0.182a

FCR

1.87b

1.82a

Survival (%)

72.3b

74.6a

slide48

Conclusion PL Quality Trials

• Hatchery tank survival rate, PL10 length, PL10 ADG,

CV size and luminescent bacteria all affected pond

performance but not pond survival rate.

• Pond survival rate is not a reliable pond performance parameter because difficult to know exactly how PLs have been stocked.

• PLs has been estimated to have 10-20% influence on

pond production. Success is highly dependant on

farm management.

• All other parameters such as stress tests, necrosis,

gut muscle ratio, etc…. had no correlation to pond

performance.

• All tested PLs were virus free.

slide49

Quality Post Larvae

The production of consistent quality post larvaerequires a “Commitment to Quality” and

discipline to implement a quality assurance

program.

- Virus free: nauplii, PL3, PL8

- Minimum tank survival rate: 30%

- CV size less than 7

- Minimum ADG: 9 mm PL10

- Luminescent bacteria free

Must reject or flush tank if less than standard.

slide50

SIS STRENGTHS & VALUES

• Fast growth

• Uniform harvest size

• Resistance to diseases: TSV

and increasingly IMNV

• High fecundity

• Virus free broodstocks for

15 years