A Profile of the South Carolina Shrimp Tourist What does coastal tourism have to do with the commercial shrimp industry? William C. Norman, Laura W. Jodice & Sajna Shenoy Recreation, Travel and Tourism Institute Department of Parks, Recreation & Tourism Management Clemson, South Carolina
Outline • Background • US South Atlantic shrimp industry problems • SC Shrimp industry problems • SC Tourism trends • Linking coastal tourism and shrimp in South Carolina • Can tourism help the South Carolina shrimp industry survive? • Shrimp and Tourism survey • Do SC Coastal tourists prefer local, wild-caught shrimp? • Restaurant study • Are coastal restaurants willing to pay a higher price for local, wild-caught shrimp?
South Carolina Shrimp - Background • Coastal fishing communities in transition • Declining fisheries • Coastal development pressures • Increasing gentrification • Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act - National Standard 8: • Conservation and management measures shall…take into account the importance of fishery resources to fishing communities in order to… • provide for the sustained participation of such communities • to the extent practicable, minimize adverse economic impacts on such communities.
SC Shrimp Industry Assistance South Carolina Shrimp - Background $5.6 million $2 m (National Marine Fisheries Service) $3.6 m (SC share from congressional allocation to SE) Subsidy to shrimpers • Marketing and quality development • $538K - Clemson University Extension (PSA) • $184K - Southern Shrimp Alliance • $100K - S.C. Seafood Alliance • $ 60K - S.C. Shrimpers Association • Business/Financial training • Economic analysis • Food science/packaging • Tourism • Marketing Plan • Processing
US South Atlantic Shrimp - Problems Increased operating costs • Govt Regs: TEDs, BRDs • Fuel Overcapacity (too many boats)?
US South Atlantic Shrimp - Problems • Competition with imports? • EU tariff on shrimp = redirection of shrimp to US (chloramphenicol and nitrofuran) • Aquaculture product meets restaurant/chef preferences U.S. Landings and Import of Shrimp
US South Atlantic Shrimp Problems • Most valuable US domestic species, but prices have declined… • Wholesale price lowest in 40 yrs • Import prices decreased as much as 28 % (2000 to 2002) • Value of harvest decreased 50% or $690 million (2000 to 2002). U.S. Shrimp Prices, Ex-vessel, 1998-2003(ytd)
U.S. Consumption of Shrimp is Rising Steadily US South Atlantic Shrimp - Problems Note: Fisheries of the United States, National Marine Fisheries Service. Shrimp, all preparations. e=estimated by FAS staff (Tom Westcot, 2003, FAS, USDA)
South Carolina Shrimp - Problems Can South Carolina shrimp compete in the global marketplace? U.S. Shrimp Harvest, by Region in 2001 South Atlantic < 1% of total available shrimp in US South Carolina < 0.1%
South Carolina Shrimp - Problems Additional challenges… • 900 vessel permits - 200 active vessels • Prime coastal real estate OR shrimp heritage? • Aging dock owners/fishermen (retirement?) • Individuality of fishermen • Quality • Lack of crew • Reliance on out-of-state processors • Roadside “peddlers” • Many seafood restaurants - few serving local, wild-caught shrimp • Confusing restaurant pricing • Conflict with recreational shrimp baiting? • Not enough shrimp to meet local demand
South Carolina Shrimp - Solutions U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC) Antidumping Duty Investigations • Government/regulatory? • Import tariffs • Fleet reduction • Government subsidies = 74% of imported shrimp
South Carolina Shrimp - Solutions • Branding & Niche marketing? • Local, wild-caught • “Sweet South Atlantic White” • In season • Organic • Sustainable • Mark of quality • Business/Financial training? • Cooperatives? • Outreach/Education?
South Carolina Shrimp - Solutions • Direct Marketing ? • Restaurant chefs • Public markets • Dockside purchase • Coastal tourist or home use? • Partnership with coastal tourism industry?
South Carolina Shrimp - Solutions • Travel and tourism industry trends in South Carolina • Largest employer and top industry • 30% income is domestic travelers ($2.07 billion) at restaurants, grocery stores and other eating and drinking establishments • Eating-place sales up by 5.7% (2002 to 2003) • 3 of top 5 counties were coastal counties = 56% total combined travel expenditures in SC
South Carolina Shrimp - Solutions Partnership? • What is the potential for marketing locally harvested shrimp to coastal visitors? • Benefit both industries? • Integration with other tourism initiatives? COASTAL TOURISM Culinary Heritage/Cultural Ecotourism Recreation Agritourism COMMERCIAL SHRIMP HARVEST ? “SHRIMP TOURISM”
Does “shrimp tourism” already exist? South Carolina Shrimp - Solutions
Could more shrimp ecotourism be developed? South Carolina Shrimp - Solutions Commerical boat? Eco-tour boat?
South Carolina Shrimp and Tourism Project Survey SC coastal visitors re: local, wild caught shrimp • Are South Carolina coastal tourist culinary tourists? • What are the attitudes, preferences, and behaviors of South Carolina Coastal visitors toward local, wild-caught shrimp, when traveling?
South Carolina Shrimp and Tourism Project Methodology • Survey #1 – Culinary Tourism Survey • Conceptual model development • ID/understand culinary tourist segments • Survey #2 – Shrimp Interest Survey • Attitudes, preferences, & behaviors re: shrimp • Segment coastal culinary visitors (apply model) • ID potential target markets VARIABLES VARIABLES • SHARED VARIABLE • Food and travel general preferences • Importance of attributes • Preferences • Beliefs/expectations • Shrimp activity on your trip • Interest in new experiences • Knowledge about shrimp • Most recent SC trip • Demographics • Food neophilia • Food variety seeking • Enduring involvement/food • Hedonic consumption/food • Personal values • Quest for authenticity • Most recent SC trip • Demographics clusters explain explain ?
Anticipated Outcomes South Carolina Shrimp and Tourism Project • Better informed industry • Mutually beneficial partnership with integrated strategy • SC shrimp industry marketing plan • Outreach & Education (SC Shrimp Alliance/Seafood Association)
Related research South Carolina Shrimp and Tourism Project • Restaurant Interviews: • Are coastal restaurants willing to purchase direct or pay a higher price for local, wild-caught shrimp? • Seafood tourism case studies
South Carolina Shrimp and Tourism Project THANK YOU!
South Carolina Shrimp and Tourism Project Methodology • Pilot testing March/April 2004 • Field survey May – October, 2004 (during shrimp season) • 6 SC coastal counties • Systematic selection at 24 visitor sites • Random times • Intercept with mail follow-up • Analysis • Statistical analysis (Factor analysis, Cluster analysis, MANOVA, ANOVA, Chi-square) • Non-response analysis • Recommendations & Outreach