Indonesia By: Daniela Nguyen
Important Facts About Indonesia • The capital of Indonesia is Jakarta. • The official language is Indonesian. • The official scripts is Latin Alphabet. • Indonesia’s Demonym is Indonesian. • Their government is presidential republic. • Indonesia’s president is Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono • Population is approximately 229,965,000
Indonesia’s History Fossilized remains of Homo erectus, popularly known as the "Java Man", suggest that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited two million to 500,000 years ago. Austronesian people, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to South East Asia from Taiwan. They arrived in Indonesia around 2000 BCE, and as they spread through the archipelago, confined the native Melanesian peoples to the far eastern regions.
Indonesia’s Government and Politics • Indonesia is a republic with a presidential system. • As a unitary state, power is concentrated in the central government. • Indonesia’s founding president was Soekarno • The highest representative body at national level is the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR).
Foreign relations and military • In contrast to Sukarno's anti-imperialistic antipathy to western powers and tensions with Malaysia, Indonesia's foreign relations since the Suharto "New Order" have been based on economic and political cooperation with Western nations. • Indonesia maintains close relationships with its neighbors in Asia, and is a founding member of ASEAN and the East Asia Summit. • Indonesia is signatory to the ASEAN Free Trade Area agreement, the Cairns Group, and the WTO, and has historically been a member of OPEC, although it withdrew in 2008 as it was no longer a net exporter of oil. Indonesia has received humanitarian and development aid since 1966, in particular from the United States, western Europe, Australia, and Japan.
Administrative Divisions • Administratively, Indonesia consists of 33 provinces, five of which have special status. • Each province has its own political legislature and governor. • The provinces of Aceh, Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Papua, and West Papua have greater legislative privileges and a higher degree of autonomy from the central government than the other provinces.
Geography • Indonesia consists of 17,508 islands, about 6,000 of which are “lived in”. • These are scattered over both sides of the equator. • The five largest islands are Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan (the Indonesian part of Borneo), New Guinea (shared with Papua New Guinea), and Sulawesi. • The capital, Jakarta, is on Java and is the nation's largest city
Biota and Environment • Indonesia's size, tropical climate, and archipelagic geography, support the world's second highest level of biodiversity (after Brazil), and its flora and fauna is a mixture of Asian and Australasian species. • Once linked to the Asian mainland, the islands of the Sunda Shelf (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Bali) have a wealth of Asian fauna. • Large species such as the tiger, rhinoceros, orangutan, elephant, and leopard, were once abundant as far east as Bali, but numbers and distribution have dwindled drastically.
Economy • Indonesia is the largest economy in Southeast Asia and a member of the G-20 major economies. • Agriculture employs more people than other sectors, accounting for 44.3% of the 95 million-strong workforce. • Major industries include petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, and mining.
Culture • Indonesia has around 300 ethnic groups, each with cultural differences developed over centuries, and influenced by Indian, Arabic, Chinese, Malay, and European sources. • The most popular sports are badminton and football. • Indonesian teams have won the Thomas Cup (the world team championship of men's badminton) thirteen of the twenty-five times that it has been held since 1949, as well as Olympic medals since the sport gained full Olympic status in 1992.
Credits I owe a lot of credit to Wikipedia and my amazingly intelligent social studies teacher Mrs. Kane for much of the information in this presentation. Thanks for watching; I hope you enjoyed it. This presentation was brought to you by: Daniela Nguyen, Ly Truong, Elahni Martinez, and JaroldPonciano