You will need to take notes. • Remember that various information will be repeated along the way. • This is to help reinforce the information. • Contents • 1. Maps • 2. A general timeline with information about early Indonesia & European colonisation of Asia. • 3. Dutch colonisation of the East Indies. • 4. Plantation Crops • 5. Nationalism • 6. WWII • 7. Post –WWII • 8. Independence • 9. Recent Indonesian history
Summary of Kingdoms • Srivijaya, 7-13th Century, Java, Sumatra & Malay Peninsula. • Sailendras, 8 – 9th Century, Central Java. • Mataram, 832 – 1042, Central Java. • Janggala, 1042 – 1222, Central Java. • Kediri, 1042 – 1222, Central Java. • Singhasari, 1222 – 1292, Java, Sumatra & Straits. • Majapahit, 1292 – 1402, The Whole Thing.
Timeline • 1494: Treaty of Tordesillas divided the non-European world between Spain & Portugal • 1511: Portuguese conquer Melaka (formerly Malacca), the great Malay trading port on the Straits of Melaka. Portuguese posts also established in the Spice Islands of Eastern Indonesia • 1520: Spain -under Ferdinand & Isabella, sponsored Magellan’s voyage. He reached the Philippines & East Indonesia • Also circumnavigated the globe
Timeline (continued) • 1565: Spanish established settlement in the Philippines • 1570: Spanish capture of Manila – they decided to stay in the Philippines • By 17th century: the State-supported Dutch East India Company (VOC) became the dominant European power in Southeast Asia. • 18th century: weakening of VOC power, & defeat by the English in the Anglo Dutch War, 1781-4; • English gained more territorial power in India, surpassed Dutch in cartography & maritime technology, & in the profitable trade between India and China.
Timeline (continued):19th century: Colonial control gradually advances in Southeast Asia. • The British consolidate their “sphere of influence” in the Malay Peninsula (British Malaya) & Burma, & use migrant labour (Chinese & Indians in Malaya, & Indians in Burma) to develop the export economy. • the French establish control in Vietnam, Cambodia & Laos • (French Indochina); • the Dutch extend their control over Indonesia (the Netherlands East Indies); • in 1898 the Americans “buy” the Philippines from Spain following the Spanish-American War.
Timeline: 19th century (continued) Some important dates: • 1824: Anglo-Dutch treaty created Dutch & British “spheres of influence’ by a line drawn down the Melaka Straits. • 1825-30: Dutch victory in the “Java War”; beginning of forced delivery of crops such as coffee, sugar, indigo etc.
Timeline: 19th century (continued) • 1857: Indian “Mutiny”: British government established direct control in much of India • 1858: Dutch began a “forward move” in Sumatra, the French also moved into Vietnam • 1859-61: French began attacks on Vietnam in response to treatment of missionaries • In fact the latter part of the 19th century consists of European conquests of SE Asia (Indochina, Burma, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia) & India.
Timeline: 20th century • Colonial introduction of Western education leads to the rise of a small group of elites aware of democratic developments overseas. • They become leaders in new nationalist movements. • The formation of the Communist Party in Russia and China has marked effects in the archipelago. • Strong communist movements develop in Vietnam, Indonesia, among the Chinese in Malaya, & in the Philippines. • All colonial powers are strongly opposed to left-wing movements, & give little hope for independence
Timeline: 20th century. WWII 1940-1945 • What happens in Europe has consequences in the colonies: • Britain, France & the Netherlands vs Germany, Japan & Italy • Vichy France Nazi occupation. French lost Indochina to Japan • 1941, December 7: Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor & • 1941, December 8: US declared war on Japan • 1941 December 8 Japanese invasion of Southeast Asia • 1942 March S.E.Asia was under Japanese control. (not French Indochina & Thailand)
Timeline: 20th century. • Post –WWII is the period known as “de-colonisation” . India Ceylon (Sri Lanka) Burma Malaya( Malaysia) Indonesia The Philippines Laos Cambodia Vietnam African countries
“Sugar and Spice and Everything Nice?” Economic Motives for Imperialism in Southeast Asia • Positioned mid-way between major civilisations to the east and west • Straits of Melaka (Malacca) only major waterway through the region until 16th century use of Straits of Sunda by Indian traders & in 17th century by the Dutch (VOC) • British in late 18th century used passage through eastern Indonesia to China via Sulu archipelago • Prior to steamships in late 19th century, sailing ships subject to monsoon winds
The Dutch in Indonesia • Both the Dutch VOC (Vereenigde Oostandische Compagnie) (1602) & English East India Company (1600) were interested in S.E. Asian trade. • Conflict led to the Ambon Massacre in 1623 & the withdrawal of the East India Company from the archipelago. • The Dutch gradually gained control of the entire archipelago: Ambon – 1605, Malacca – 1641, Aceh – 1667, Macassar –1669, Banten - 1682. • The objective was trade: Indian cottons for spices.
Development of Trade, theLifeblood of Southeast Asia • Initially, Southeast Asia formed a maritime east-west trade that supplemented the silk road trade; • Southeast Asia a transit point • Increasingly, Southeast Asian products came to supplement and later even became the primary products in international trade
Southeast Asian Products in Demand inInternational Trade Prior to 15th Century • Medicinal products: camphor, benzoin, cloves, rhinoceros horn • Exotic products: aromatic woods (eaglewood), rattans, kingfisher’s feathers, pearls, birds nests, tripang (sea cucumbers; beche de mer) • Other trade items: tin (used as foil in Indian temples)
Early Modern Period (c. 1450-c. 1800) • Southeast Asia now regarded as major source of goods in international markets • Return of Chinese traders in 1567, continuing Indian trade, temporary influx of Japanese traders, and arrival of Europeans (initially Portuguese and Spanish, then joined by Dutch & British in the early 17th century) • Period referred to as the “Age of Commerce”
Colonisation of Island Southeast Asia • By early 20th century all of present-day Indonesia brought under Dutch control; Aceh in north Sumatra fought& lost long war (1873-1912), though the Dutch never re-entered the area • Malay Peninsula came under British control after the Anglo-Dutch Agreement of 1824- a line through the Straits of Melaka creating division between present-day Malaysia & Indonesia
Colonisation of Indonesia • The Dutch avoided direct administration until the mid 18th century. Control was exercised through local rulers who were also doubled as principal traders • The system of leveringen began at end the 17th century: Fixed amounts at fixed prices. • Direct administration of areas growing coffee, sugar, indigo & spices began in the 18th century.
Colonisation of Indonesia (continued) • The Dutch employed their navy to enforce a monopoly on trade with Europe. • There was no effort to introduce religion, culture or education. • Dutch trade practices did have the unintentional consequence of displacing the population • One result was the rise of the Bugis pirates.
Hermann Daendels • Herman Daendels was appointed Gov-Gen of Indonesia by Napoleon from 1808-11 to improve defenses against the British and improve administration. He • Centralised administration. • Reduced graft and corruption. • Established adat courts. • Increased compulsory coffee production and established a monopoly on rice to raise funds.
Thomas Stamford Raffles • Gov-Gen Minto (India) led an invasion of Java in 1811 and left Stamford Raffles in charge. He introduced major reforms. • Permitted land ownership with tax rate based on fertility. • Peasants could cultivate and sell crops of their choice, except coffee. • Created an elaborate court system with jury trials. • Dutch returned in 1816.
Role of the Regent • The Regent was the native VOC agent contracted to deliver export crops. He was subordinated to a governor-general, regional governor & resident/comptroller. In turn, he appointed and supervised village chiefs who he was responsible to pay from the taxes he collected. • His role grew to include governmental & religious aspects, usurping the role of local princes. Eventually, the position was considered hereditary. • Daendels & Raffles sought to reduce his powers to protect the natives. Raffles land rent system virtually eliminated him. • The Java War demonstrated the need for his support.
First Transformation of SoutheastAsian Landscape • European attempt to monopolise trade in cloves, nutmeg, and cloves (“trinity of spices”) • bring change in collection and production • Under Portuguese (16th century), spices no longer just picked branch and all, but picked, dried, & bagged • Under Dutch (mid 17th and 18th centuries), forests of clove and nutmeg trees “extirpated” *, • allowing trees only in designated islands: • Ambon for cloves & Banda Islands for nutmeg • Clearing of forests by both local rulers and • Europeans for new plantation crops NUTMEG * Extirpate: removed something completely
Java War (1825-1830) • Also called the Dipo Negoro Revolt. • Led to the death of 200,000; 8,000 were Dutch. • Dipo Negoro was a prince, but as the son of a lesser wife not eligible to inherit the Sultanate of Yogyakarta. Rejected by Raffles as his father’s successor, he became an Islamic mystic. When tombs were disturbed by road construction, he led a revolt as a messianic ratu adil. • Controlled middle Java and Yogyakarta until defeated in 1825. Then led a guerrilla war until 1827. Captured in 1830. The war cost the Dutch 30 million guilders.
The Culture System • The system was implemented from 1830 to 1877 to raise funds to cover the cost of the Java War, Napoleonic Wars & the Belgium Civil war. • It was the brain child of Baron Johannes Van Den Bosch, Gov-Gen of Java.. • Required villages to grow export crops to raise sufficient funds to cover their land taxes. • These would be sold to the government at a fixed price for transportation to Amsterdam. The system provided 19-32% of the state’s revenue.
Max Havelaar • Max Havelaar or The Coffee Auctions of the Dutch Trading Company written by Eduard Douwes Dekker & published in 1860. • Portrayed the Culture System as organised forced labor. Increased prices led to increased taxes & taxes were collected on commission. • By 1840, rice shortages, famines , epidemics and dislocation all began to appear. Saijah & Adinda. • Reforms led to the system being dismantled government monopolies abolished starting in 1860. Coffee remained a monopoly until 1917.
Other Reforms • Baron Van Hoevell, a former preacher in Java, led a reform movement in the Dutch States General: • 1848 – The legislature would have a say in colonial government. • 1854 – Passed a “colonial constitution” for abolition of culture system. • 1870 - Passed the Agrarian Act allowing the leasing of land and development of free trade.
The Ethical Policy 1901 • A policy of “ethical obligation and moral responsibility to the people of the East Indies.” “education, irrigation and emigration.” Included Western education for elites, agricultural extension to open new areas and improve crops, resettlement from Java to Sumatra, improved infrastructure, encouragement of economic development and Christian missionaries.
Plantation Crops in Early Modern Period • Clearing of forests by both local rulers & Europeans to plant pepper to meet demand, especially from India and China • Black pepper (piper nigrum) introduced to Southeast Asia from southern India about beginning of Common Era & grown alongside Sumatran varieties; • high maintenance crop • Other crops introduced by Dutch in Java were: sugar, coffee, indigo, tobacco for international trade
Introduction of “High Colonialism” in1870s: Creating the infrastructure for Economic Exploitation • Communications system: telegraph, roads, bridges, railways, ports, warehouses; roads from mines and plantations to rivers to ports, later railways to port • Legal and Administrative system: new land tenure alienating land for mines or plantations • Scientific and technical research institutes • Financial system: currency linked to currency of the metropole for stability; banking and insurance to aid capital flow • Organisation of manpower • Stable government • Invested in extraction of raw materials and cultivation of tropical export crops in great demand in temperate areas
Second Transformation of the Southeast Asian Landscape • Major swaths of forested lands & even wet-rice lands transformed to make way for expansion of area under plantation crops in all colonial areas of Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia), British Malaya, Spanish Philippines, British Burma, French Indo-China, • Brazilian rubber tree successfully introduced to Indonesia making rubber a major revenue earner in early 20th century because of the automobile (& later the airplane) Industry • Forests also felled for timber trade
RUBBER TREE Latex
Plantation Crops prior to WW II • • Coffee begun in 17th century in Java, but variety • changed from Arabicaup to 1880s, to Libericaand • Robusta from Africa today • • Sugar cane also developed new varieties in 19th century • • Other 19th century crops were tea, originally from China • quinine from the bark of cinchona tree (originally from Andes) developed in Java in early 20th century • • Mainland Southeast Asia’s main export was rice • • Copra and palm oil for vegetable oils, for flux* * metallurgy a substance that promotes the fusion of two substances or surfaces. Use: soldering, welding.