FACS Unit2: Individual and Family Relationships 20 class periods
2.1 Match terms related to family/individual health and relationships • See handout
2.2 Name characteristics of a positive and a negative self concept • Positive self concept: • Respect • Reliable • Responsible • Has self-control • Sets and achieve goals • Avoids blaming others for mistakes • Resolves conflicts in a positive manner • Takes care of themselves
Name characteristics of a positive and a negative self concept, cont.. • Negative Self Concept: • Have self doubt/negative attitude • Easily persuaded by peer pressure • Doesn’t take care of health • Has poor relationships skills • Feels that the world is against them • Feels that there is no hope for improvement
Do You Really Want to Raise Your Self-Esteem? ELEVEN STEPS TO GET STARTED Make it your intent to: 1. Be on time for everything. You show respect for others and they will trust you. Those who respect others do not cheat, deceive or steal and are trusted. 2. Be clean. Consistently groom your body, organize your space and donate to others. Nurture your body and your relationships and you will be confident. 3. Say only supportive things to yourself. Convert negative thoughts to think positively about yourself and others. You will be loyal. 4. Keep your conscience clean. Talk to someone you trust. Have courage to do the right thing and you will build a good reputation. 5. Take responsibility for your actions and choices--forgive yourself and others. Forgive and forget the incident and you will be tranquil. 6. Put your desires in writing. You must know what you want to have it. Clarity makes one powerful.
7. Be aware and appreciate the good in your life daily. This keeps you in the present and you will be gracious. 8. Share your knowledge with those who wish to know. Contribute and participate and you will be joyful. 9. Do what you love to do and do it where you want to be. You will be happy. 10. Do what you say you will do, when you say you will do it, whether you feel like it or not. Keep your word and you will be reliable. 11. Tell your truth in the moment. Don't wait for the "right" time. You will be accountable for your choices.
2.3 Describe the effects of self-concept on individual health • Chronic illnesses such as diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure can be linked to poor self esteem and stress. • People who feel good about themselves are more likely to take care of their bodies. • People with a good self concept are less likely to engage in activities that risk personal health
2.4 Match stages of the individual life cycle with the correct age range. • Infancy Birth-1 year • Toddler 1-3 • Early Childhood 4-6 years • Middle Childhood 6-12 • Adolescence 12-20 years • Early Adulthood 20-40 years • Middle Adulthood 40-65 years • Late Adulthood and End of Life Over 65 years
2.5 Describe physical changes which may occur in each stage of the individual life cycle. • Infancy: • Babies grow 10-12 inches and triple their body weight in the first year of their life. • Girls at age 2 and boys by age 2 1/2 are half as tall as they will be as adults. • Early Childhood: • Physical development progresses steadily. • Middle Childhood: • Physical development is steady and slow.
Individual Life cycle, physical changes, cont. • Adolescence: • On set of puberty occurs due to complex set of hormonal changes. • Girls reach sexual maturity as early as age 12 1/2 while boys achieve it later. • Girls: • waistline narrows • hair appears on legs and underarms • fat deposits on hips, thighs, and arms • oil and sweat glands more active • reproductive system matures and menstruation occurs
Individual Life cycle, physical changes, cont. • Boys: • neck thickens • shoulders broaden • muscles increase in size and strength • voice deepens • hair appears on face • A growth spurt usually occurs a year or more before puberty begins.
Individual Life cycle, physical changes, cont. • Early Adulthood: • The brain reaches a stable size and weight. • A person has more muscle tissue, more calcium in the bones and a more efficient immune system.
Individual Life cycle, physical changes, cont. • Middle Adulthood: • Brain size diminishes somewhat. • A loss of reproductive capacity occurs, (menopause for women). • Bone mass declines significantly beginning at age 30. • Lens of the eye start to thicken which reduces vision. • Hearing loss may occur.
2.6 Name emotional/social changes that may occur during adolescence • Changes in hormones can cause: • feelings of restlessness and irritability • mood swings • peer pressure • dating and relationships begin • want independence • begins to resent adult interference • conflict with parent/authority figures
2.7 Determine positive and negative habits that affect personal health • Strike a balance between your emotional, social and physical health. • Positive forces that can enhance your health • Exercise • Learn to recognize and reduce stress • Get a minimum of 8 hours sleep • Eat following the food guide pyramid (www.mypyramid.gov) • Follow the dietary guidelines set forth by the FDA
Determine positive and negative habits that affect personal health, cont. • Negatives that can endanger your personal health: • Communicable disease • STDs (Sexually Transmitted Diseases) • Violence • Eating Disorders • Suicide • Stress • Not exercising
2.8 State the symptoms of stress • signs of stress • sweating of hands • headaches • tightness in shoulders or neck • feeling overly tired
2.9 Name positive methods for coping with stress • Tips to reduce stress • think positively • choose what problems you want to deal with and let the others go • learn to be more accepting • be open to other points of view • learn relaxation techniques • exercise or do a physical activity to work off stress. • Take up a hobby to take your mind off your problem.
2.9.1 Determine coping strategies for stress situations • Case study: • What would you do? • You are a school athlete. Your grades are falling and the coach has warned you that if you do not improve your grades, that you will be kicked off the team. Besides this, your father has been ill and has been unable to work. You have been working part-time after school and weekends to help your parents pay the bills. You are in drama class and you have to learn your part for the upcoming play. You are president of your school club and you have many upcoming events that you need to organize.
2.10 Describe the effects of harmful substances on the body • Tobacco • nicotine--addictive drug • cancer causing • creates physical stress • secondhand smoke • when breathed in a crowded room, can be 6 times the pollution of a busy highway • can be connected to SIDS • can be connected to upper respiratory infections and ear infections in children exposed to secondhand smoke
Describe the effects of harmful substances on the body, cont. • Alcohol • destroys brain cells--brain is smaller in drinkers than non-drinkers • excessive use of alcohol can cause serious damage to nearly every part of your body • teens are more susceptible to alcohol addiction than any other age • movement, speech, vision and good judgement are all altered when consuming alcohol • becomes dangerous when mixed with other drugs • contributes to social problems • FAS/FAE (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effect)
Describe the effects of harmful substances on the body, cont. • Inhalants • dangerous substances with fumes that are sniffed to produce a mind-altering high • includes: • glue • hair spray • nail polish • spray paints • magic markers • white out
Describe the effects of harmful substances on the body, cont. • Effects • can cause dizziness • loss of coordination • memory loss • death
Describe the effects of harmful substances on the body, cont. • Drugs • cause serious harm and even death • cause deformities,dependency, and death in babies of users • contributing factors in accidents
About Illegal Drugs Illegal drugs generally fall under four main categories: Depressants Examples include: * Heroin and other opium derivatives (with street names like smack, scag, horse, and hammer); * Cannabis - (three main forms are marijuana, hashish and hash oil - with street names like grass, pot, hash, weed, reefer, dope, herb, mull, buddha, ganja, joint, stick, and cones); and * GHB - Gamma hydroxy butyrate (with street names like grievous bodily harm, scoop, water, everclear). These drugs slow down (or depress) the activity in all parts of the central nervous system.
Stimulants Examples include: * Amphetamines (with street names like speed, up, fast, go-ee, whiz, pep pills and uppers); * Cocaine (with street names like C, coke, flake, nose candy, snow, dust, white, white lady, toot, crack, rock, and freebase); and * Methylamphetamines (street names include crystal meth and Ice). These drugs stimulate or excite (make faster) the central nervous system.
Hallucinogens Examples include: * Lysergic acid diethylamide (with street names like LSD, acid and trips); * Magic mushrooms (active ingredient psilocybin - street names like gold tops and blue meanies); * MDMA (with street names like Ecstasy E, XTC, eccy and the love drug); and * Phencyclidine (street names like angel dust and PCP). These drugs alter your perception (or sense of reality) and this may result in experiencing hallucinations.
Steriods • Hormones used illegally to improve appearance or to improve a competitive advantage in sports. • Can cause serious health problems • depression • aggression • sterility • masculine traits in women • heart attacks • strokes • The common street (slang) names for anabolic steroids include arnolds, gym candy, pumpers, roids, stackers, weight trainers, and juice.
Whenlegal becomes illegal Prescription drugs can also fall under these categories. When prescribed by your doctor and used in accordance with the doctor's instructions, these drugs are legal. When stolen or fraudulently obtained, the possession, distribution or use of these drugs becomes illegal. One common example is benzodiazepines (for example, Valium, Serepax, Mogadon, Temazepam - with street names like downers and slow). Other examples are barbiturates (for example, varieties of sleeping pills) and synthetic derivates of narcotic analgesics (often varieties of very strong painkillers).
2.11 Match terms related to relationships • Clique • acquaintances • crush • infatuation • love • sibling rivalry • spouse • infidelity • friendship
2.12 Name types of relationships • Family • Friendships • Spouse • Child • Acquaintance • Fiance • Neighbor
2.13 Provide reasons for establishing meaningful relationships • Benefits: • meet emotional and social needs • companionship • skills for getting along with others • a feeling of acceptance and approval • provides a feeling of security • provides help for coping with life changes
2.14 Describe ways to build and maintain positive relationships • Skills: • Develop respect and trust within relationships • Show a genuine interest in others • be trustworthy • be understanding • be generous and unselfish • avoid stereotyping and prejudice • be considerate and respectful • be positive • be flexible • strive to resolve conflicts in a positive manner
2.15 Describe effects of verbal and nonverbal communications upon relationships • Verbal communications • expressing ideas to others by using oral or written words • examples: speech, writing, Braile, email • Nonverbal communications • expressing ideas to others through body lanugage • example: facial expressions, posture
Describe effects of verbal and nonverbal communications upon relationships, cont. • Communication is the sending and receiving of messages through words and gestures. • To prevent misunderstandings, messages should be clear. • Verbal messages: • consider the goal • state ideas in a clear and concise voice • avoid speaking for others • match tone with message • use language understood by the receiver • avoid negative communication • ex. Bragging, teasing, offensive language, slang words
Describe effects of verbal and nonverbal communications upon relationships, cont. • Nonverbal • maintain eye contact • avoid negative body language • respect personal space • maintain a well-groomed appearance • ex. Take frequent showers, shampoo, and wear clean clothes • exhibit effective body language • ex. Good posture, attentiveness
2.15.1 Analyze the effects of communication on relationships • Gossip • hurtful and destroys relationships • can be a barrier to friendship • may cause breakdown in family relationships • ruin reputations • cause depression and anxiety • promote poor self worth • may cause others to question the integrity of the person who gossips • Ask these questions: Is it the truth? Is it fair? Is it necessary to tell? If no--KEEP QUIET.
2.16 State positive ways to resolve conflicts • Steps in Conflict Resolution • Define the problem • Suggest a solution • Evaluate the solution • Compromise • Brainstorm • Mediate
State positive ways to resolve conflicts, cont. • Learn to Negotiate • Compromise--coming to an agreement in which each person gives up something in order to get what they both want. • Guidelines for negotiation: • Select an appropriate time and place to work out your problems • Keep an open mind. • Be flexible. • Accept responsibility for your role in the conflict. • Work together to find a positive solution • Don’t give up. • Seek help.
2.17 Match types of family structures with components of each • Nuclear Family • This consists of a mother father, and one or more children born to them. • Single parent family • One parent raising one or more children. • Blended Family • Formed when two people marry and at least one already has children.
Match types of family structures with components of each, cont. • Extended Family • Another relative such as a grandparent or aunt, lives with the family. • Adoptive Family • Parents legally adopt a child not born to them. • Foster Family • Includes a child no related to the family but cared for by them as a family member.
2.18 Name rights and responsibilities of individual family members • Parent: Responsibilities • give birth to the children • provide basic physical needs • provide money for basic needs • teach morals/ values • socialization/set rules and limits • encourage independence • Parent: Rights • To be treated with respect • To expect that all family members act responsibly
Name rights and responsibilities of individual family members, cont. • Children: Rights • to be treated with respect • have their basic needs met • to be taught family values/morals • taught family traditions • Children: Responsibilities • complete tasks without being reminded • treat others with respect • learn self control • abide by rules
2.19 Name the outside influences that may cause a change in family lifestyle • Divorce/remarriage • Death • New additions to family • Job loss/change • Moving • Income change • Social issues
2.19.1 Determine strategies for coping with outside influences • Acknowledge presence of change • Plan ahead • Discuss feelings with others. • Focus on the good • Be supportive of other family members • Seek help
2.20 Describe peer pressure during adolescence • Source of stress • Pushed to go along with the crowd • Try to convince friends to act differently • Affects Self Esteem • Actions of teen may be manipulated to serve purpose of peers • Affects personal standards and morals • Influences choice of friends
2.21 Explain coping skills for dealing with peer pressure • Plan ahead for actions of negative peer pressure. • Be positive about choices. • Make choices based on your own values/standards. • Stand up for what you believe in; say ‘NO” • Suggest alternatives
2.21.1 Describe positive ways to cope with peer pressure • Case study: • What would you do if: • your friends wanted you to sneak out of your house and meet them at midnight? • Try a drug? • Try shop lifting? • Steal a copy of a test? • Drive faster than the speed limit? • Go to someone’s house for a “party” when their parents are gone?
2.22 Describe the value of dating • To learn social skills • To have fun • To learn how to give and take in a relationship • To learn to recognize the impact their words and actions can have on the lives of other people • To learn about the opposite sex • To abandon sex-based stereotypes (that not all women are like a man’s mother or sisters, etc.) • All lessons learned through dating help people prepare for marriage • To learn what type of person you want as a marriage partner
2.23 Designate socially acceptable behavior for specific occasions • Manners and Etiquette • show respect • respect others privacy • ask permission to use others possessions • let people know where you are • arrive home when agreed • make guests in your home feel welcome • when going to someone’s home, arrive on time • when at someone’s home, help keep neat • use correct table manners