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Eggs. Structure of the Egg . Albumen: egg white Will be come thinner as eggs age The fresher the egg the cloudy-white it will look Yolk: yellow portion Flatten as ages Color depends on hen’s diet Red spot near yolk mean that one or more small blood vessels in the yolk have ruptured

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  1. Eggs

  2. Structure of the Egg • Albumen: egg white • Will be come thinner as eggs age • The fresher the egg the cloudy-white it will look • Yolk: yellow portion • Flatten as ages • Color depends on hen’s diet • Red spot near yolk mean that one or more small blood vessels in the yolk have ruptured • Chalazae: two, thick, twisted stands of albumen that anchor the yolk in the center of an egg

  3. Nutrients in egg • Whites & yolks • Protein & vitamin B12, vitamin A, iron, calcium • Yolks • Contain more vitamins and minerals than white • One of the few natural source of Vitamin D • Fats and cholesterol • Eat yolks in moderation • 80 calories per large egg • Brown Vs White • Breed of the hen – determine shell color • Color not related to – nutrients, flavor, or cooking quality

  4. Buying Eggs • Grades • AA, A , B • Same nutritional value • Grade AA & A thicker white suitable when appearance is important • Grade B – used just for baking • Size • Medium, large, extra large, and jumbo • Always assume large egg

  5. Storing Eggs • Highly perishable – place in frig right away • Don’t wash – removes protective coating and allows bacteria to enter • Keep in original carton rather than tray in frig – door will be warmer than carton • Shells are porous – they will pick up aromas of food in the frig • May lose quality after too much exposure • Discard – dirty, cracked, or leaking eggs

  6. Storing Eggs cont. • Refrigerator • Raw eggs – 4 weeks • Egg mixture – use within 3 days • Hard boiled egg – use within a week • Freezing • Place egg white in ice cube tray • 2 egg whites equal one egg • Do not freeze cooked eggs – they will be rubbery and tough • Yolk – need to add salt and sugar • Never freeze whole egg in sell may burst

  7. Egg Substitutes • Frozen or refrigerated liquid forms • Made of – egg whites, veg oil, tofu, nonfat dry milk powder, chemical additives, emulsifiers, stabilizers, antioxidants, artificial color • No egg yolk – no cholesterol or fat and lower calories • More expensive than eggs

  8. Egg Science • Eggs act as a binder, thickener, leavening agent & emulsifier • Because of high protein content • Coagulate: egg becomes firm, changing from a liquid to a semisolid or solid state • Helps with the binding of ingredients • High heat and overcooking cause an egg’s protein structure to tighten and push out water • Make the protein tough and watery

  9. Egg Science cont. • Emulsifier: hold together two liquids that normally won’t stay mixed • Water and oil • Foams – when you beat egg whites, a foam forms (leavening agent) • Adds volume and lightness to baked products • Angel food cakes & meringues • Soufflé: folding stiffly beaten whites into a sauce or pureed foods

  10. Preparing Eggs for Cooking • Separating eggs • Break into an egg separator • Use your hand • Rock the egg yolk back and forth in the shell • Cracking the shell • Hold in one hand and tap on counter or side of bowl • Crack all eggs individual into small dish in case there is any shell that falls into the batter

  11. Preparing Eggs for Cooking cont. • Beating egg whites • No yolk – the fat can keep a foam from reaching full volume • Bowls – glass or metal • Plastic and wooden absorb fat • Aluminum darken the whites • Allow eggs to set at room temp for 20 minutes to reach full volume • Protein does not break down as readily to create foam • Acidic – cream of tartar, vinegar, or lemon juice • Helps stability • Sugar – will help stabilize but increases beating time – added at the end of beating process • Salt – decrease stability – add to other ingredients rather than whites

  12. Preparing Eggs for Cooking cont. • Beating egg whites cont. • Peaks – lift the beaters out of the mixture • Soft peak: gently bend over like waves • Stiff peak: stand up straight

  13. Preparing Eggs for Cooking cont. • Beating egg whites cont. • Overmixing – foam turns dry, hard, and lumpy – making it fall apart • Folding – do gently • Stirring and beating causes loss of air and volume • White on the top – cut down into the middle - flip upside down – turn bowl – repeat

  14. Cooking with Eggs • White cooked until firm • Yolk should be thickened, not runny • Never eat raw or undercooked eggs, contain salmonella

  15. Egg Cooked in the Shell • Single layer of eggs on bottom of pan • Add water to 1 inch above eggs • Cover pan and bring to a boil • Turn heat off as soon as boiling begins • Let eggs stand • 12 min for medium • 15 min for large • 18 min for extra large • Immediately pour off hot water and run cold water over them to stop the cooking process • Cracks – because of overheated or overcooked • Single layer

  16. Egg Cooked in the Shell cont. • Gray-green color – sulfur in white and iron in yolk react – over cooked • Peeling eggs • Gently tap the egg all over on the counter to crack the shell – roll to loosen the shell – peel the shell • Fresh eggs are harder to peel than older eggs

  17. Poached Egg • Water/Milk/Broth in saucepan about 2 to 3 inches • Heat to boil and then reduce to gentle simmer • Break egg into small dish – one at a time • Slip the egg into water • Cook until white is set – 3 to 5 minutes • Remove with slotted spoon • Usually served over toast

  18. Frying Egg • Fry in oil, margarine, or butter • Heat small amount of fat in skillet over medium-high heat until hot enough to sizzle a drop of water • Break egg into a custard dish • Slide egg into frying pan • Cook until whites are completely set and yolk has thickened • Cook the top part of the egg • Flip the egg • Cover with lid the last few minutes • Over easy egg - yolk is still slightly runny

  19. Scrambled egg • Fluffy scrambled egg – beat eggs and water/milk in bowl • 1 tbsp of liquid per egg • Heat pan with small amt of fat • Pour egg mixture into heated skills – let stand for 30 to 60 seconds • Pull inverted turner through eggs – forms curds and allows uncooked egg to the bottom • Continue until eggs are thickened and no visible liquid • Don’t stir constantly – can create tough curds • Can scramble directly in the pan

  20. Baked Egg • Shirred eggs: baked eggs • Break into small bowl • Slip them into greased shallow baking dish or large custard cup • Top with small amount of milk – to prevent drying out • Bake at 325 for 12 to 18 minutes

  21. Basic Omelet • Omelet: egg mixture together to form a large, thick pancake, filled and then folded over before serving • Mix 2 eggs, 2 tbsp water, dash of salt and pepper with a fork or whisk until just blended • Heat 1 tbsp butter/oil in omelet pan or skillets over medium heat until hot enough to sizzle a drop of water • Pour all egg in all at once • Allow to flow to edge of pan – do not stir

  22. Basic Omelet cont. • With turner – lift just a little around the firming edge so that uncooked portion flows beneath • Tilt pan as needed • Be careful not to break the mixture • Continue until top is thickened and no visible liquid egg remains • Spread filling over half of the omelet • Using turner, fold the omelet in half • Tilting skills slightly away from you and folding toward the low side may help • Slide omelet onto a plate and serve

  23. Basic Omelet cont. • Omelet filling – anything you can imagine • Frittata: like an omelet, but the ingredients are stirred into the egg mixture

  24. Microwaving Eggs • Fried egg – break egg into lightly greased dish – pierce yolk – cover & cook at 50% power for 2 to 3 minutes – let stand, covered, until white completely set for 30 sec to 1 min • Scrambled eggs – pour beaten egg into custard cup – cook on full power, stirring once or twice, until almost set, about 1 to 1½ minutes – may need to cover and let stand about 1 min

  25. Microwaving Eggs cont. • Poached egg – pour hot water into custard cup – break and slip egg – pierce yolk – cook full power for 1½ to 3 minutes – let stand, covered until white are thickened – lift egg with slotted spoon or pour water off

  26. Custards • Custards: thickened blend of milk, eggs, and sugar • Soft custard – creamy and pourable • Pudding or sauce • Cook over low heat, stirring constantly, until thick enough to coat a metal spoon – cool quickly by setting pan in a bowl of cold water • Overcooked – custard will curdle • Undercooked – custard will stay thin and watery

  27. Custards • Baked custard – firm and delicate texture • Add water around the baking to help the custard from over cooking • Baked custard until a knife inserted near the center comes out clean • Quiche: pie with custard filling, contain such food as chopped veg, cheese, and chopped cooked meat

  28. Meringues • Meringue: foam made of beaten egg whites and sugar and used for baked desserts • Beat egg whites along with cream of tarter until foamy and gradually beat in sugar, one tbsp at a time • 2 styles of meringue • Soft meringue • Hard meringue

  29. Meringues cont. • Soft meringue • Spread over precooked pie filling – needs to touch edge/crust otherwise will shrink • Bake until peaks are lightly browned • Over baked - tough & chewy skin forms • Poach soft meringue • Milk or water in sauce pan, deep enough for spoonful to float • Drop spoonfuls • Custard will expand • Simmer about 5 minutes • May need to flip • Remove and drain • Serve immediately or chill for later

  30. Meringues cont. • Hard meringue • Beat egg whites and sugar until stiff peaks • Line baking pan with parchment paper or foil • Drop desired amount (spoonful) • Pastry tube for design • Bake at low temp for long time • Allow water to evaporate slowly – leaving meringue light and crisp • If they do not dry well they become sticky and chewy

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