the changing life of the people before and after 1750 n.
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The Changing Life of the People Before and After 1750. Marriage and the Family. Extended and the Nuclear Families Previous thought – Extended families gives way to Industrialism. New thought – Extended family was a rarity in western and central Europe by 1700

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marriage and the family
Marriage and the Family
  • Extended and the Nuclear Families
    • Previous thought – Extended families gives way to Industrialism

New thought – Extended family was a rarity in western and central Europe by 1700

  • Parents would move in with their children rather than the reverse

Many never married

  • Those that did, married late – 27 yrs old
  • Economic conditions
    • Peasant sons would wait for inheriting land
why continued
Why… continued
  • Community controls
    • Many needed permission from local officials
    • Poor would be discouraged because they became a burden on the community
work away from home
Work Away from Home
  • Boys would go where the work was
    • Sometimes as an apprentice at 14 – forbidden to marry
    • Always subject to economic fluctuation

Girls jobs were more limited

    • Domestic service was most common
    • Physical and mental abuse by the mistress of the house
    • Sexually exploited by family and friends of family
premarital sex and community controls
Premarital Sex and Community Controls
  • Up until 1750 illegitimacy was rare
  • Premarital sex was common
    • Going steady
    • Promised

Community controls

    • Open field systems led to patterns of cooperation
    • Moved quickly to protect unwed mother
    • Carnival Season – humiliation rituals
community controls continued
Community Controls…continued
  • Family planning was up to the couple
    • Contraception; 1700’s in urban areas- sheath
    • Created by Fallapio in 1564. He claimed to have invented a linen sheath,, as protection against syphilis
    • Coitus interruptus- Withdrawal
the cottage industry
The Cottage Industry
  • Cottage industry – wages made people independent
    • Courtship becomes freer
new patterns of illegitimacy
New Patterns of Illegitimacy
  • 1750 to 1850 – “Illegitimacy Explosion”
    • Germany – rose to 25%
    • France 36%
  • More women were active
  • Fewer men would marry
  • Cottage industry – wages made people independent
    • Courtship becomes freer
illegitimacy continued
  • Urbanization – growing population sent villagers to the city
    • Mobility … not subject to traditions
    • Promises were made, but not kept? Sincere or not?
children and education
Children and Education
  • If the couple lived to 45 they had six or more children
    • One in three or one in five died - depending on social class
    • Parents neglect was a reason for mortality: Vicious circle
  • Schools
    • Most never learned to read but literacy was growing
    • The book hungry Public
child care and nursing
Child Care and Nursing
  • Lower class women breast fed
    • Longer then today
    • Reduces chance of pregnancy
    • Increases immunities
  • Upper-class rarely breast fed
    • Hired a wet nurse
    • Middle class women used a wet nurse so she could go to work
wet nursing
Wet Nursing
  • Women were exploited
    • If they dried they were fired
    • Their own babies were neglected
  • Attitudes toward the nurses
    • Passed their bad traits to babies
    • Killing nurses – let the baby die to take another fee
foundlings and infanticide
Foundlings and Infanticide
  • Christian Church through Jewish scriptures denounce practice
  • Overlaying … Austria made it illegal to take toddlers to bed with them.
  • Abortions were rare and dangerous
  • Foundlings – St Vincent de Paul. The wealthy donate to the cause… demonstrates social concern
foundlings continued
Foundlings continued…
  • Even so, by 1770 1/3 of all babies born in Paris were abandoned. 1/3 of those were from married couples… The working poor.
    • ½ of these died early
attitudes toward children
Attitudes Toward Children
  • A minor concern of parents regardless of class- High infant mortality
  • “ One blushes to think of loving one’s children
    • But … What about evolution
    • But… What about Christianity
    • Child mortality rates were high so don’t become attached?
  • No doctors for the children
  • Vicious circle …
attitudes continued
Attitudes… continued
  • When attention was given was often abusive
  • “Spare the rod, spoil the child.”
  • Mother of John Wesley “conquer the will of the child.”
  • Cry silently to avoid more punishment
  • Early paupers were beaten in factories because it was considered normal
  • Enlightenment ideas appear
    • Rousseau.. Emile 1762
      • Greater love and tenderness
      • Nurse your own child
      • Stop swaddling
schools and popular education
Schools and Popular Education
  • Aristocrats
    • 16th century often sent children colleges – Jesuits
  • Elementary education for the common – 18th century
    • Boys and girls 7-12
      • Literacy and religion
    • The Reformation fostered education… competition for the mind of the people
  • Prussia leads the way 1717... Mandatory elementary ed.
  • Literacy rates skyrocket from 1600-1800.
what did they read
What Did They Read?
  • The educated public – Philosophical works
  • The commoners…
    • The Bible
    • Chap books
    • Fairy tales, Fictions, Adventures
      • Morality lessons
    • Almanacs – practical information
food and medical practices
Food and Medical Practices
  • The poor … Grains - bread, wine and beer and some vegetables, fruit was uncommon… Feel full
  • Ate less meat in the 1700’s then in the 1500’s
    • Poor were not allowed to hunt game.
  • The Just Price… bread was important.
      • Against free market ideas
      • So what this is bread
diets continued
Diets… Continued
  • The wealthy
    • Meat and more meat
    • Cheeses, nuts, sweets
    • Alcohol and more alcohol
  • Middle class – mixture of all
  • England, Holland’s poor ate best among the poor.
the impact on health
The Impact on health
  • The poor lacked important vitamins – A and C
  • The rich had gout
  • The middle class mixed their diet.
  • The potato… A and C
  • 18th century tropical fruits appeared in maritime Europe
  • White bread
  • Sugar
medical practitioners
Medical Practitioners
  • The Enlightenment – courses are created
  • Women were restricted by the 1700’s
  • Faith healers – the countryside
  • Apothecaries – Purging
  • Physicians
    • Men
    • Wealthy
    • Served the wealthy
    • Practices – Bloodletting and purging
  • Surgeons – war allowed for practices to advance
medicine continued
Medicine… continued
  • The Midwife
    • Witch hunt craze
    • Doctors helped eliminate the tradition
    • But may still remained
  • The Hospital
    • Dirty
    • Enlightenment – hospital reform
    • Mental hospitals – discipline, the lunatic, male masturbation… epilepsy, acne, and premature ejaculation…
    • Quacks … electricity
    • Small Pox … inoculation… Jenner
religion and popular culture
Religion and Popular Culture
  • Religion
    • Church was woven into society
    • Charity
    • Education
    • Priest for Protestants was no longer the intermediaries.
    • Catholics less subject to the Pope… State controls Church
    • Jesuits… 1773 were dissolved by Rome.
    • Abolition of contemplative orders… Edict of Idle Institutions… Austria
protestant revival
Protestant Revival
  • Germany – Pietism
    • Warm emotional religion
    • Priesthood for all believers
    • Christianity in everyday affairs
  • John Wesley – Methodists – England
    • Church of England was corrupt
    • Took his emotional appeal to the people
    • Rejects predestination
catholic piety
Catholic Piety
  • Condemns paganism
  • Festivals were to remember Biblical events
  • The Piety of the people and the theological purity was mostly a compromise
leisure and recreation
Leisure and Recreation
  • Carnival… wild release
  • Oral tradition for the common
  • Drinking and talking in a public place, taverns.
  • More Gin being made
  • Commercialization
    • Fairs
    • Entertainment
    • Blood sports
      • Gambling
  • Wedge grows between the common and the elite