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Globalization Studies International College KhonKaen University 2011 Week 5 – Our Shrinking World (1)
Globalization – ourshrinking world • “Shrinking world” is a metaphor for the compression of distance, and of time, in our globalizing world • Distance is much less of a hurdle than it used to be • What is foreign and alien to us is no longer as mysterious and threatening • Like it or not, most of us are becoming global citizens rather than solely “citizens of Thailand” or any other one country
Globalization – the shrinking world • In week 2, I introduced our four main themes for this globalization studies course: • the global economy • global politics • the global community • the global environment • For the past two weeks we have concentrated on the global economy • This week, and next, I want to turn to changes taking place in the global community
Globalization – the drivers • What is “driving” globalization? • There are four main drivers of globalization: • The conscious decisions of most governments in the world to: • liberalise trade across borders (global economy) • intensify and expand global political dialogue and collective action (global politics) • And two other factors not driven by governments: • technological advances • travel and mobility
Globalization – technology driven • Technology • At least four major components are helping to drive globalization: • Industrial technology • Transportation technology • Information and data technology • Communications technology • We will look at each of these very quickly
Globalization – technology driven • Industrial (production) technology – some examples: • Robotics, reinforcing economies of scale • Synthetic fertilizers • Biotechnology • Alternative energy technologies • Nanotechnology and micro-processing • Seed technology and genetic modification more generally • Space technology • Biometrics • Laser and fiber optics • Superconductivity • Nuclear technologies, and the list goes on……..
Globalization – technology driven • Transportation technology - some examples: • Containerization of freight • Electronic tracking using GPS and laser technologies • More fuel efficient engines (for air, land and sea) • Multifuel engine technology • High speed trains using electromagnetic technologies • Batteries forever smaller, lighter and more efficient • Lighter, stronger materials allowing longer flights, better fuel efficiency • Drones
Globalization – technology driven • Information and data technology – some examples: • Internet • Data processing - from mainframe, to PC, to laptop, to palm top, to mobile phone, to smart-phone • Data storage • E-government • E-education • Internet gaming • Digital TV and 3D TV • Spy satellites
Globalization – technology driven • Communications technology – some examples: • Email • Voice over internet protocols (VOIP) • Mobile phones (2G >3G>4G) • Interactive TV • Text-to-voice and voice-to-text technologies • Instant translation and interpretation technologies • Communication and TV broadcast satellites • Facebook, Hi5, Twitter, Messenger • Video conferencing
Globalization – technology driven Internet connection rate for each 10,000 people in the year 2000
Globalization – technology driven • Issues and concerns: • The global digital divide is showing few signs of narrowing • Access to the new technologies may actually be widening the gap between rich and poor • Much of the global media, especially news media, is controlled by richer states • But on the positive side: • Many of these technologies help “liberate” individuals from governmental intervention and media control
Globalization – Review of the shrinking world • What are the important “drivers” of globalization? • Government decisions to liberalize trade and finance crossing borders (global economy) • Government decisions to intensify and expand global political dialogue and collective action (global politics) • Technological advances • Travel and mobility
Globalization – travel and mobility • Migration is not new: the scale and pace of modern people movements is new • Migration over just the past 150 years has made the United States, Canada and Australia the relatively successful countries they are today • Migration has become more difficult in recent decades, as: • governments assert control over their borders and the people seeking to cross them • governments manage immigration and emigration as tools of economic and social policy
Globalization – travel and mobility • As governments became more selective, they facilitated entry of “desirable” categories of traveler and migrant, and make entry for others more difficult • Short-term visitor and “economic benefit” categories have grown rapidly as the ease and cost of travel have improved • But intending migrants often find themselves in limbo in intermediate countries, seek entry illegally or turn to people smugglers
International Migration Net migration rates for 2008.
Globalization – travel and mobility • In terms of our emerging global economy and global society, people movement is much less “free” than goods and capital movements • People are more “difficult” to assimilate than goods, services and capital – there are social, cultural and workplace impacts • People mobility is likely to continue to be the notable exception to the general trend of global integration
Globalization – travel and mobility • Main categories of traveler/migrant: • Short-term: • Tourists/visitors/business traveler • Skilled term-contract worker • Migrant or seasonal worker • Student • Long term/permanent: • Refugee • Economic migrant • Environmental migrant
Globalization – travel and mobility • Tourists and short-term visitors are the largest, and fastest-growing, category of cross-border travelers • In 2008, there were over 922 million international tourist arrivals (source UNWTO) • Most visited countries: France, USA, Spain, China, Italy • Annual tourism expenditure is around US$950 billion
Globalization – travel and mobility • Skilled term-contract workers are admitted for short to medium-term employment, and are most often professionals or highly skilled • Most countries are now competing for highly-qualified professionals (health, ICT, engineering) and those with specialist skills (English teachers, ethnic chefs) • Typically North/North and South/North transfers • South/North transfers raise issue of “brain drain”
Globalization – travel and mobility • Migrant and seasonal workers are generally low-skilled and typically employed on short-term contracts in agriculture or construction projects • Remittances are a major source of income and foreign exchange for several “sending” countries • Top 5 remittances receiving countries: India, China, Mexico, the Philippines, Poland • Most lower-skilled migrant workers are from developing countries. 58% are also working in developing countries, ie. South/South transfers
Globalization – travel and mobility • Students traveling internationally to study languages or whole degrees is another high-growth industry for a number of countries, mainly English-speaking • Students from a number of source countries see this as a “back door” to long-term employment/migration
Globalization – travel and mobility • Refugees are tightly defined by the UN Convention as persons “with a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion” who are outside their country of nationality • Many see this definition as too narrow • The UNHCR recognizes 16 million refugees and asylum seekers (June 2009) but notes there are a further 26 million internally displaced people
Globalization – travel and mobility • Economic and environmental migrants range from those displaced by natural disasters, desertification, loss of land or livelihood to those simply seeking a better life in another country