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Viral Hepatitis. Wyoming Department of Health Communicable Diseases 307-777-8939. Viral Hepatitis. Can lead to cirrhosis (destruction) of the liver and subsequent liver cancer Leading cause of liver cancer globally #1 reason for liver transplantation

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Viral Hepatitis


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    1. Viral Hepatitis Wyoming Department of Health Communicable Diseases 307-777-8939

    2. Viral Hepatitis • Can lead to cirrhosis (destruction) of the liver and subsequent liver cancer • Leading cause of liver cancer globally • #1 reason for liver transplantation • 4.4 million Americans are living with chronic hepatitis • Most don’t know they are infected • 80,000 new infections occur each year http://www.doctortipster.com/589-hepatitis-symptoms-diagnosis-and-treatment.html

    3. Viral Hepatitis • 5 types: • Hepatitis A • Transmitted via fecal oral route • Hepatitis B • Sexually Transmitted and through blood to blood contact • Hepatitis C • Transmitted through blood to blood contact • Hepatitis D • Transmitted through percutaneous or mucosal contact with infected blood, Hepatitis B must also be present, uncommon in US • Hepatitis E • Transmitted via fecal oral route, uncommon in the US • Hepatitis A, B and C are the most common • This presentation will focus on Hepatitis B and C

    4. Hepatitis B • Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is transmitted through: • Unprotected sexual contact with an infected individual • Sharing needles or “works” • Mother to child during birth • Blood to blood contact • Sharing razors or toothbrushes with an infected person • HBV can live outside of the body for up to 7 days

    5. Hepatitis B • Signs and Symptoms of HBV include: • Fever • Fatigue • Loss of appetite • Nausea • Vomiting • Abdominal Pain • Dark Urine • Clay-colored stool • Jaundice • Pain in the joints • Symptoms can last from several weeks to 6 months • The test for HBV is a blood test

    6. Hepatitis B • HBV can become a chronic infection • 90% of infants who are infected will become chronic • 25%-50% of children aged 1-5 years will become chronic if infected • 5% of adults will become chronic if infected • HBV accounts for up to 4,000 deaths in the US per year: • 25% of children who become chronically infected will die prematurely • 15% of adults who become chronically infected will die prematurely

    7. Hepatitis B • Prevention: • Get vaccinated • Recommended for all infants at birth and all individuals who have never been vaccinated • Immunity lasts for at least 20 years • Is given in 3 doses • Properly and consistently using condoms during sex • Not sharing needles or rinse water • Not sharing razors or toothbrushes with an infected person • Using gloves and other protective wear when handling blood or blood products

    8. Hepatitis C • Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is transmitted through: • Injection Drug Use-sharing needles • Receiving blood or blood products in the US before 1992 • Infected mother to child transmission • Unprotected sex with an infected person (uncommon)

    9. Hepatitis C • Symptoms: • Fever • Fatigue • Dark urine • Clay-colored Stool • Abdominal Pain • Loss of Appetite • Nausea • Vomiting • Pain in the joints • Jaundice http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/258960/view • HCV infection can be confirmed by a blood test

    10. Hepatitis C • 1 of every 3 injection drug users is estimated to be infected with HCV • The CDC estimates that 17,000 people become acutely infected with HCV annually in the US • 75%-85% of individuals who get Hepatitis C will subsequently develop a chronic infection • Approximately 3.2 million people in the US have a chronic Hepatitis C infection • Of every 100 people that become infected with HCV • 75-85 will develop a chronic infection • 60-70 will develop chronic liver disease • 5-20 will develop cirrhosis over a 20-30 year span • 1-5 will die as a consequence of the virus (liver cancer or cirrhosis)

    11. Hepatitis C • Treatment for HCV: • 15%-25% of individuals with an acute HCV infection will naturally clear it out of their body • It is very difficult to “cure” chronic HCV infection and therapy is not always successful at managing the infection • “Cure” corresponds to a sustained virologic response in which viral loads are undetectable after treatment and the individual is no longer infectious • Combination Therapy • Ribavirin and pegylated interferon • All individuals with chronic hepatitis C infection should be vaccinated for Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B to prevent further damage to the liver

    12. Hepatitis C • Prevention: • There is NO VACCINATION for Hepatitis C • Do not share needles or rinse water • Wear protective equipment when handling blood or blood products • Do not engage in unprotected sexual contact with an infected person http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/2011/07/hepatitis-risk-spikes-for-drug-users.html

    13. References • Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011, September 2). Viral Hepatitis. • http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/ • Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011, April 4). Hepatitis B Information • forHealth Professionals. http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/HBV/HBVfaq.htm • Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011, August 4). Hepatitis C Information • for Health Professionals. http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/HCV/HCVfaq.htm