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Solution ConcentrationsPowerPoint Presentation

Solution Concentrations

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Solution Concentrations. Different ways of representing how much stuff is contained in a solution. Solution Components . Solution: a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase

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### Solution Concentrations

Different ways of representing how much stuff is contained in a solution

Solution Components

- Solution: a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase
- Atoms, molecules, or ions are thoroughly mixed so that the substance has a consistent composition and properties

- Solute: The substance being dissolved
- USUALLY the smaller amount
- The particles of solute are so small that they can not be seen

- Solvent: The substance doing the dissolving

Some Commonly Used Ways of Representing Concentration

- Molality
- Moles of solute per kilogram of solvent

- Percent by Volume
- Percent by Mass
- Parts per Million
- Parts per Billion
- Parts per Trillion

Molarity

- Number of moles of solute per liter of solution

Perform the following calculations…

- What is the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 37.94 g of potassium hydroxide to produce a 500.0 mL solution?
- What is the molarity of a 3500.0 mL solution that contains 141.6 g of citric acid (C3H5O(COOH)3)?
- How much sodium hydroxide would be needed to produce 750.0 mL of a 6.00 M solution?
- How many grams of K2Cr2O7 are needed to make 250.0 mL of a 0.125M solution?

Preparing Solutions by Dilution

- In many cases, solutions are sold in high concentrations and diluted with distilled water (or other solvents) to produce a solution with a desired concentration
- Any ideas why?

- When this is the case, the number of moles is the quantity that will determine the volumes needed…

Perform the following calculation

- Calculate the amount of a 12.0 M hydrochloric acid solution (HCl) that is needed to produce 500.0 mL of a 2.00 M HCl solution.
- Determine the moles of solute required for the desired solution
- Use the SAME NUMBER OF MOLES to calculate the volume of the concentrated solution that would provide this amount
- Make up the volume difference with distilled water (or other specified solvent, if you are actually making the solution)

Perform the following calculations…

- What volume of a 6.77 M nitric acid (HNO3) solution to produce a 250.0 mL of a 1.50 M solution?
- What is the molarity of a solution that is made by diluting 50.00 ml of a 4.74 M HCl solution to 250.0 mL?
- How much final solution would be made by adding water to 1.19 mL of a 8.00 M acetic acid solution (CH3COOH) to produce a final molarity of 1.50 M?

Perform the following calculations…

- What is the final molarity of an ammonium chloride solution produced by diluting 50.00 mL of a 3.79 M solution to 2.00 L?
- A 3.8 M solution of iron (II) sulfate is diluted to eight times its original volume. What is the new molarity of the solution?

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