The Classical Era (1750-1820) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Classical Era (1750-1820)

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  1. The Classical Era (1750-1820) Year 10 IGCSE October 2009

  2. The Age of Enlightenment • Believed in progress, rising middle class • American and French revolutions • Humanitarian Ideals/reason and knowledge • Liberty, Equality and fraternity!

  3. Musical Style • Polyphonic texture to simple melodies • Light and graceful music (style gallant) • Epitome of classical music 1770-1820 • Music printing and increase amateur performances • Opera and concerto grosso becomes symphony • Suite became sonata

  4. Elements of Music Characteristics • Changes of mood • Can be sudden (unlike Baroque) but unified • Rhythm • Flexible (sudden or gradual) • Texture • Homophonic – but can change, more vertical schemes • Melody • Tuneful and sometimes borrowed • Balanced and symmetrical • Dynamics • Range and not just terraced dynamics, crescendos used • piano instead of harpsichord (1775) – forte piano • Basso Continuo • Obsolete – more amateur friendly – rid improvising

  5. Standard Orchestra • Strings, Woodwinds, Brass, Percussion • Larger number of musicians (25-60) • Specific timbres considered • Continuo disappeared • Conductor with baton and clarinet! • More balanced between strings and winds • Orchestra more like that of today

  6. Form • 4 movements usually • 1. Fast • 2. Slow • 3. Dance-related movement • 4. Fast • Symphony = 4 movements, orchestra • string quartets = 4 movements, 2 violins, viola, cello • Sonata = one or two instruments (most formal, developed by Haydn and Mozart) • CONTRASTING THEMES in one movement • BALANCE OF SECTIONS (tension resolved)

  7. Life in Classical Period • Composers affected – breaking free from control • Haydn • Mozart • Beethoven • More public concerts – spread through Europe • Middle class people started playing instruments • More demand for printed music • More comic, vulgar

  8. Sonata Allegro Form • Single movement form – usually the form of the 1st movement of symphony, quartet or sonata • 3 sections:ABA • Exposition: • Development • Recapitulation • CODA • Listen to Mozart Symphony No. 40 in G Minor 4th Movement

  9. Mozart Symphony No. 40 in G Minor 4th Movement Notes:

  10. Theme and Variations • Independent piece or as a movement of a symphony, sonata, or string quartet • BASIC IDEA repeated and changed • This idea can be borrowed or composed BASIC STRUCTURE: Listen to: Haydn’s Symphony No. 94 in G Major 2nd Movement

  11. Notes from Listening

  12. Minuet and Trio • Usually as the 3rd movement of symphonies and quartets • Triple meter and moderate • A(m)B(t)A(m) - trio quieter usually • STRUCTURE: • Listen to Mozart’s Eine kleine Nactmusik 3rd Movement

  13. Haydn’s Symphony No. 94 in G Major 2nd Movement Notes:

  14. Rondo • Independent or as a movement • Lively, regular and conclusive • Tuneful main theme (usually simple) that returns in alternation • STRUCTURE: • Sonata-Rondo STRUCTURE:

  15. Classical Symphony • Origin from 17th century opera overtures • Extended – 20-45 minutes • Haydn wrote many of the early symphonies • Usually 4 movements with range of contrasts • 1. fast dramatic (usually sonata form) • 2. slow lyrical (sonata form, ABA, or T+V), diff key • 3. dancelike • 4. fast heroic (sonata or sonata-rondo)

  16. Classical Concerto • 3 movement work for instrumental soloist and orchestra • Fast (cadenza) (sonata form with 2 expositions) • Slow • Fast (cadenza improvisation) (rondo or sonata-rondo) • then CODA (short) • Interplay of melody lines and cadenzas • Mozart and Beethoven wrote many (star in each on piano) • 20-45 minutes

  17. Classical Chamber Music • Imitate room setting • 2-9 musicians – entertain guests • No conductor • STRING QUARTET – a fine art • Usually 2 violin, viola and cello • Usually 4 movements • Fast • Slow • Minuet • Fast • OR sonata (violin/piano), trio (piano, violin, cello), quintet

  18. Sacred Choral Music • Oratorios and masses were most elaborate in 18th century • MASS – Haydn wrote most exuberant masses • Classical sacred music mixes classical MELODY-HARMONY and POLYPHONIC IMITATION • Oratorios – musical setting of sacred text • Comic Opera • Opera Buffa – Comic Opera (ie La Serva Padrona by Pergolesi, Mozart`s Don Giovanni)