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Nitrogen Inerting Requirements – A Lit. Review. Steve Summer Project Engineer Federal Aviation Administration Fire Safety Branch, AAR-422. International Aircraft Systems Fire Protection Working Group Atlantic City, NJ October 30 - 31, 2002. Background.

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nitrogen inerting requirements a lit review

Nitrogen Inerting Requirements – A Lit. Review

Steve Summer

Project Engineer

Federal Aviation Administration

Fire Safety Branch, AAR-422

International Aircraft Systems Fire Protection Working Group

Atlantic City, NJ

October 30 - 31, 2002

IASFPWG – Atlantic City, NJ

background
Background
  • Recent tests at the Tech Center produced inerting requirement data as a function of altitude.
  • This data contradicts the typical requirement of 9% O2 used by the military, but a literature search shows that it does not contradict any previous data on the subject.

IASFPWG – Atlantic City, NJ

background1
Background
  • Values lower than 11 – 12% have arisen due to two things:
    • A difference in ignition criteria
      • Pressure rise should be used as criteria, as overpressurization is what will cause catastrophic failure.
    • Safety factors added on to experimental values
      • Data has been taken at stoichiometric levels with a large ignition source (worst-case scenario), so a certain amount of SF is built into the data.

IASFPWG – Atlantic City, NJ

slide5

Ref. Kuchta (1986)

IASFPWG – Atlantic City, NJ

previous jet fuel data
Previous Jet Fuel Data
  • Sam Zinn (1971) – Examined data as far back as 1946 from Boeing, Bureau of Mines, U of Cal., WADC, Convair, and Wright Pat
    • All found levels of between 11 – 12% O2 were sufficient to suppress ignition except for one.

IASFPWG – Atlantic City, NJ

previous jet fuel data1
Previous Jet Fuel Data
  • Stewart & Starkman (1955) determined a level of 9.8%
    • Criteria for ignition was any visual flame front.
    • It is noted in their report that at times, flame occurred with little to no pressure rise.
    • Their data does however verify the trend of decreasing inerting requirements as altitude increases.

IASFPWG – Atlantic City, NJ

previous jet fuel data2
Previous Jet Fuel Data
  • Kuchta@Bureau of Mines (1970) suggested a SF of 20% be added on to the LOC value.
    • It appears that this is where the current military standard of 9% has come from.
    • This added SF might not be needed as the tests were performed under worst-case conditions (i.e. stoich. mixture, large ignition source)

IASFPWG – Atlantic City, NJ

conclusions
Conclusions
  • A literature search of previous experimental data shows excellent agreement with the current dataset that was obtained.
  • All reported levels that were lower than 11 – 12% O2 were due either to a disparity in ignition criteria or excessive safety factors added onto the experimental data.

IASFPWG – Atlantic City, NJ