AGEC/FNR 406 LECTURE 36 Crop Improvement in Theory and Practice
Sustainable Development World Commission on Environment and Development Definition: Sustainable development (SD) is a process by which current generations can “meet their needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.” The definition is anthropocentric. Is this a “strong” or “weak” definition?
“Vicious Cycle of Poverty” 1. Low productivity of labor produces low incomes. 2. Low income leads to high emphasis on satisfying consumption needs in the present. 3. Emphasis on current periods means savings and investment (for future) are low. 4. Low investment translates into low level of productivity of labor.
“Vicious Cycle of Poverty” What makes labor productive? Human, Physical, or Natural Capital
“Vicious Cycle of Poverty” How does this cycle of poverty impact the environment? As natural resources are degraded and depleted,the productivity of labor declines.Lower labor productivity encourages further use of natural resources... No escape? a “Poverty Trap”
Effect of Population Growth? 1. Faster population growth implies greater consumption needs. 2. Emphasis on current consumption reduces savings and investment. 3. Low investment leads to greater exploitation of environmental resources. Policy issue: how to break the cycle?
Three Key Issues in SD 1. Irreversibility > can natural capital be restored? 2. Uncertainty > can the natural system withstand stress? 3. Scale > are threshold effects likely?
Sustainability exercise See handout (1.1)(1.1) = 1.21 (1.1)(1.1)(1.1) = 1.33 (1.1)(1.1)(1.1)(1.1) = 1.46 (1.1)(1.1)(1.1)(1.1)(1.1) = 1.61