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Cost Accounting

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  1. Cost Accounting AGEC 489-689 Spring 2010

  2. Managerial Cost Concepts • Direct materials: raw materials physically associated with the final product • Direct labor: employees physically and directly associated with the final product • Overhead: costs indirectly associated with the final product

  3. More Concepts • Period costs: costs matched with revenue for a specific time period. (i.e., net income for a specific period (i.e., quarterly, annual). • Product costs: costs associated with producing the final product. Not considered an expense until the product is sold. • Total costs: equals direct materials, direct labor and manufacturing overhead plus indirect costs (selling and administrative expenses).

  4. Pro Forma Financial Statements Sales Budget Production Budget Direct Materials Budget Direct Labor Budget Overhead Budget Selling and Administrative Expense Budget Capital expenditures Cash Budget Budgeted Income Statement Budgeted Balance Sheet Budgeted Cash Flow Statement

  5. The Master Budget and Pro Forma Financial Statements • Enterprise #1 • Unit sales and expected price • Unit production and inventory • Direct materials used • Direct labor used • Manufacturing overhead Sales Budget Production Budget Direct Materials Budget Direct Labor Budget • Enterprise #n • Unit sales and expected price • Unit production and inventory • Direct materials used • Direct labor used • Manufacturing overhead Overhead Budget

  6. The Master Budget and Pro Forma Financial Statements • Enterprise #1 • Unit sales and expected price • Unit production and inventory • Direct materials used • Direct labor used • Manufacturing overhead Sales Budget Production Budget Direct Materials Budget Direct Labor Budget • Enterprise #n • Unit sales and expected price • Unit production and inventory • Direct materials used • Direct labor used • Manufacturing overhead Overhead Budget

  7. The Master Budget and Pro Forma Financial Statements • Enterprise #1 • Unit sales and expected price • Unit production and inventory • Direct materials used • Direct labor used • Manufacturing overhead Sales Budget Production Budget Direct Materials Budget Direct Labor Budget • Enterprise #n • Unit sales and expected price • Unit production and inventory • Direct materials used • Direct labor used • Manufacturing overhead Overhead Budget

  8. The Master Budget and Pro Forma Financial Statements • Enterprise #1 • Unit sales and expected price • Unit production and inventory • Direct materials used • Direct labor used • Manufacturing overhead Sales Budget Production Budget Direct Materials Budget Direct Labor Budget • Enterprise #n • Unit sales and expected price • Unit production and inventory • Direct materials used • Direct labor used • Manufacturing overhead Overhead Budget

  9. The Master Budget and Pro Forma Financial Statements • Enterprise #1 • Unit sales and expected price • Unit production and inventory • Direct materials used • Direct labor used • Manufacturing overhead Sales Budget Production Budget Direct Materials Budget Direct Labor Budget • Enterprise #n • Unit sales and expected price • Unit production and inventory • Direct materials used • Direct labor used • Manufacturing overhead Overhead Budget

  10. The Master Budget and Pro Forma Financial Statements • Enterprise #1 • Unit sales and expected price • Unit production and inventory • Direct materials used • Direct labor used • Manufacturing overhead Sales Budget Production Budget Direct Materials Budget Direct Labor Budget • Enterprise #n • Unit sales and expected price • Unit production and inventory • Direct materials used • Direct labor used • Manufacturing overhead Overhead Budget

  11. The Master Budget and Pro Forma Financial Statements • Examples of direct materials: • Purchase of corn. • Purchase of natural gas. • Purchase of other inputs used in • the production process. • Enterprise #1 • Unit sales and expected price • Unit production and inventory • Direct materials used • Direct labor used • Manufacturing overhead • Examples of manufacturing overhead: • Other expenses directly related to • production of a specific product. • Examples include property taxes, rent • and depreciation

  12. The Master Budget and Pro Forma Financial Statements • Indirect expenses are those expenses not associated with manufacturing a product or providing a service. Some examples include: • Marketing and selling expenses • Transportation expenses outside the factory • Management salaries and other administrative expenses

  13. Total Costs Period Costs Non-manufacturing Costs Production Costs Manufacturing Costs Direct Materials

  14. Total Costs Period Costs Non-manufacturing Costs Production Costs Manufacturing Costs Direct Materials Direct Labor

  15. Total Costs Period Costs Non-manufacturing Costs Production Costs Manufacturing Costs Direct Materials Direct Labor Manufacturing Overhead

  16. Total Costs Period Costs Non-manufacturing Costs Production Costs Manufacturing Costs Selling Expenses Direct Materials Direct Labor Manufacturing Overhead

  17. Total Costs Period Costs Non-manufacturing Costs Production Costs Manufacturing Costs Selling Expenses Direct Materials Direct Labor Administrative Expenses Manufacturing Overhead

  18. Total Costs Period Costs Non-manufacturing Costs Production Costs Manufacturing Costs Selling Expenses Direct Materials Direct Labor Administrative Expenses Manufacturing Overhead Other Indirect Expenses

  19. Three Cost Accounting Concepts • Process cost accounting • Job order cost accounting • Activity based cost accounting

  20. 1. Process Cost Accounting • Tracking costs associated with a specific process • Direct materials and labor associated with the specific process • Manufacturing overhead costs associated with the specific process • Assigning costs to finished goods

  21. Example: Process Costs in Making Bread Direct Materials Direct Labor Variable Overhead Mixing Department WIP Baking Department WIP Packaging Department WIP Finished Goods Production Cost Report

  22. Example: Process Costs in Making Bread Direct Materials Direct Labor Variable Overhead Mixing Department WIP Baking Department WIP Packaging Department WIP Finished Goods Production Cost Report Production Cost Report

  23. Example: Process Costs in Making Bread Direct Materials Direct Labor Variable Overhead Mixing Department WIP Baking Department WIP Packaging Department WIP Finished Goods Production Cost Report Production Cost Report Production Cost Report

  24. Comparison of Cost Systems

  25. 2. Job Order Cost Accounting • Tracking costs associated with a specific order or job • Direct materials and labor associated with a specific order or job • Manufacturing overhead costs associated with a specific order or job • Assigning costs to finished goods

  26. Comparison of Cost Systems

  27. 3. Activity Based Cost Accounting • An approach for allocating overhead. • An activity is any event, action, transaction or work sequence that incurs when producing a product or providing a service. • An activity cost pool is a distinct type of activity (e.g., ordering materials). • A cost driver is any factor or activity that has a direct cause-effect relationship with resources consumed (e.g., machine hours).

  28. Steps in ABC Accounting • Identify and classify activities and allocate overhead to cost pools. • Identify cost drivers – correlation between driver and use. • Compute overhead rates – ABC rate. • Assign overhead costs to products – use of cost drivers. • Comparison of unit costs across products.

  29. Activity Based Cost Allocation Overhead Costs Activity cost pools: Ordering and Receiving Materials Cost Pool Setting Up Machines Cost Pool Machining Cost Pool Assembly Cost Pool Inspecting and Testing Cost Pool Painting Cost Pool Cost drivers: # of Tests # of Direct hours # of Machine hours # of Parts # of Setups # of Purchase orders Products

  30. Example of ABC Accounting ABC Overhead rate = Overhead per activity ÷ Cost driver per activity Initial status: Activity Cost Pool Process Driver AB overhead overhead activity rate Setting up machines $300,000 1,500 setups $200/setup Machining $500,000 50,000 hours $10/hour Inspecting $100,000 2,000 inspection $50/inspection Total $900,000 Step 1: Assigning overhead driver activity to products: Activity Cost Pool Cost driver Driver Product 1Product 2 activity Setting up machines # setups 1,500 500 1,000 Machining Hours 50,000 30,000 20,000 Inspecting # inspections 2,000 500 1,500

  31. Example of ABC Accounting Step 1: Assigning overhead driver activity to products: Activity Cost Pool Cost driver Driver Product 1Product 2 activity Setting up machines # setups 1,500 500 1,000 Machining Hours 50,000 30,000 20,000 Inspecting # inspections 2,000 500 1,500 Step 2: Partitioning of process overhead: OverheadProduct 1 Product 2___ Setting up machines $300,000 (33%) $100,000 (67%) $200,000 Machining $500,000 (60%) $300,000 (40%) $200,000 Inspecting $100,000 (25%) $25,000 (75%) $75,000 500/1,500 x $300,000 or 500 units x $200/setup

  32. Example of ABC Accounting Step 1: Assigning overhead driver activity to products: Activity Cost Pool Cost driver Driver Product 1Product 2 activity Setting up machines # setups 1,500 500 1,000 Machining Hours 50,000 30,000 20,000 Inspecting # inspections 2,000 500 1,500 Step 2: Partitioning of process overhead: OverheadProduct 1 Product 2___ Setting up machines $300,000 (33%) $100,000 (67%) $200,000 Machining $500,000 (60%) $300,000 (40%) $200,000 Inspecting $100,000 (25%) $25,000 (75%) $75,000 1,000/1,500 x $300,000 or 1,000 x $200/setup

  33. Example of ABC Accounting Step 1: Assigning overhead driver activity to products: Activity Cost Pool Cost driver Driver Product 1Product 2 activity Setting up machines # setups 1,500 500 1,000 Machining Hours 50,000 30,000 20,000 Inspecting # inspections 2,000 500 1,500 Step 2: Partitioning of process overhead: OverheadProduct 1 Product 2___ Setting up machines $300,000 (33%) $100,000 (67%) $200,000 Machining $500,000 (60%) $300,000 (40%) $200,000 Inspecting $100,000 (25%) $25,000 (75%) $75,000 30,000/50,000 x $500,000 or 30,000 x $10/hour

  34. Example of ABC Accounting Step 1: Assigning overhead driver activity to products: Activity Cost Pool Cost driver Driver Product 1Product 2 activity Setting up machines # setups 1,500 500 1,000 Machining Hours 50,000 30,000 20,000 Inspecting # inspections 2,000 500 1,500 Step 2: Partitioning of process overhead: OverheadProduct 1 Product 2___ Setting up machines $300,000 (33%) $100,000 (67%) $200,000 Machining $500,000 (60%) $300,000 (40%) $200,000 Inspecting $100,000 (25%) $25,000 (75%) $75,000 20,000/50,000 x $500,000 or 20,000 x $10/hour

  35. Example of ABC Accounting Step 1: Assigning overhead driver activity to products: Activity Cost Pool Cost driver Driver Product 1Product 2 activity Setting up machines # setups 1,500 500 1,000 Machining Hours 50,000 30,000 20,000 Inspecting # inspections 2,000 500 1,500 Step 2: Partitioning of process overhead: OverheadProduct 1 Product 2___ Setting up machines $300,000 (33%) $100,000 (67%) $200,000 Machining $500,000 (60%) $300,000 (40%) $200,000 Inspecting $100,000 (25%) $25,000 (75%) $75,000 500/2,000 x $100,000 or 500 x $50/inspection

  36. Example of ABC Accounting Step 1: Assigning overhead driver activity to products: Activity Cost Pool Cost driver Driver Product 1Product 2 activity Setting up machines # setups 1,500 500 1,000 Machining Hours 50,000 30,000 20,000 Inspecting # inspections 2,000 500 1,500 Step 2: Partitioning of process overhead: OverheadProduct 1 Product 2___ Setting up machines $300,000 (33%) $100,000 (67%) $200,000 Machining $500,000 (60%) $300,000 (40%) $200,000 Inspecting $100,000 (25%) $25,000 (75%) $75,000 1,500/2,000 x $100,000 or 1,500 x $50/inspection

  37. Example of ABC Accounting Step 2: Partitioning of process overhead: OverheadProduct 1Product 2 Setting up machines $300,000 $100,000 $200,000 Machining $500,000 $300,000 $200,000 Inspecting $100,000$25,000$75,000 Total $900,000 $425,000 $475,000 Step 3: Process overhead costs per unit: Units produced 25,000 5,000 Process overhead cost per unit $17 $95 Traditional process overhead cost per unit*$30 $30 * $900,000 divided by 30,000 units Avoids overstating profitability of some enterprises and understating profitability of others

  38. Example of ABC Accounting Product 1 Product 2 COP unit costs with ABC costing: Direct materials $40 $30 Direct labor $12 $12 ABC overhead $17$95 Total unit costs $69 $137 COP unit costs with traditional costing: Direct materials $40 $30 Direct labor $12 $12 Traditional overhead *$30$30 Total unit costs $82 $72 * $900,000 divided by 30,000 units Traditional overhead costing suggests that Product 2 is cheaper to produce than Product 1, which is not true!

  39. LOC and the Master Budget • Identifying monthly cash flow surpluses and deficits • Determining the required LOC – summation of monthly draws less monthly repayments • Role of the Master Budget; LOC is derived from the cash budget.

  40. Cash Management Strategies • Acceleration of cash receipts • Pre-addressed stamped envelopes • Obtain deposits on large orders • Charge interest on overdue receivables • Delay cash payments • Pay with check (float) • Delay frequency of paying employees • Just in time inventories