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Genetic Engineering. Noadswood Science, 2011. Genetic Engineering. To understand the process of genetic modification. Anagrams. Solve the anagrams: - L odyl S enge U clesun N iclngo S rgrueoat S lxaeua T inctug M borye L oenc Ohmemcrosos. Dolly Genes Nucleus Cloning Surrogate

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Genetic engineering

Genetic Engineering

Noadswood Science, 2011

Genetic engineering1
Genetic Engineering

  • To understand the process of genetic modification


  • Solve the anagrams: -

    • Lodyl

    • Senge

    • Uclesun

    • Niclngo

    • Srgrueoat

    • Slxaeua

    • Tinctug

    • Mborye

    • Loenc

    • Ohmemcrosos

  • Dolly

  • Genes

  • Nucleus

  • Cloning

  • Surrogate

  • Asexual

  • Cutting

  • Embryo

  • Clone

  • Chromosomes

Genetic engineering2
Genetic Engineering

  • Genetic engineering is also called genetic modification or GM and is very different from cloning

  • What differences are there?

Genetic engineering3
Genetic Engineering

  • How have humans changed the genetic make-up of organisms that we have taken advantage of?

  • Selective breeding - only breeding the organisms with the characteristics we wanted

  • Genetic engineering takes genes from one organism, and places them into the chromosomes of another organism…

Genetic engineering4
Genetic Engineering

  • Genetic engineering takes genes from one organism, and places them into the chromosomes of another organism. It alters an organism's genetic code, and works because there is only one code for life

  • The set of instructions for which a gene is responsible work whichever organism the gene is in, e.g. a gene for luminescence from a jellyfish can be added to a frog, making it luminescent too!


  • Enzymes are used to cut up and join together parts of the DNA of one organism, and insert them into the DNA of another organism

  • In the resulting new organism the inserted genes will code for one or more new characteristics - for example producing a new substance, or performing a new function

  • The organism has been genetically re-engineered

  • E.g. a bacterium's genetic make-up can modified by splicing a gene into its DNA

Method detailed
Method – Detailed

  • Certain enzymes can cut pieces of DNA from one organism, and join them into a gap in the DNA of another organism

  • The new organism with the inserted genes has the genetic information for one or more new characteristics, e.g. the organism might produce a useful substance, or be able to carry out a new function

  • The method can be used to produce bacteria that produce insulin (valuable hormone needed for people with diabetes) – bacteria are used as they reproduce very quickly rather than having to extract the insulin from other humans / animals


  • There are strong arguments for and against cloning and genetic engineering

  • It is possible to produce genetically modified animals and plants – sheep that produce human proteins for treating the symptoms of cystic fibrosis (a disease which causes sufferers to produce abnormally thick and sticky mucus in their lungs) have been produced, and even tobacco plants that glow in the dark when they need watering

  • Some people are excited by the almost limitless possibilities of cloning and genetic engineering, while some people believe the process is unethical and should be banned. Others are concerned about what might happen in the future as these techniques are all relatively new…

Pros cons
Pros & Cons

  • Complete the genetic engineering pros & cons worksheet


  • Where do you stand with genetic engineering?

  • You have five minutes to consider your standpoint, and then we shall open up a debate (remember during the debate you do not interrupt!

  • If there is something you disagree with you must remain silent, just raise your hand for your viewpoints to be heard!


  • When arguing about GM consider the following

  • In favour: -

    • Cloning company director

    • A mother wanting to clone an organ for her son

    • A scientist involved in reproductive and therapeutic cloning

    • A scientist only involved in therapeutic cloning

    • A government minister

  • Against : -

    • A scientist involved in the project with cloned Dolly the sheep

    • A government minister

    • A women’s rights activist

    • Head of the Christian church