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The Parts of a S t o r y or a N o v e l Prepared by Jamil Istifan M-DCC, ESL and Foreign Languages Dept. Sources & Influence. Where the author took his ideas to settle his story. Of whom and of what he was influenced. Space & Time. Where the narration has been occurred.

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The Partsof aS t o r yor aN o v e lPrepared byJamil IstifanM-DCC, ESL and Foreign Languages Dept.

Sources influence
Sources &Influence

  • Where the author took his ideas to settle his story.

  • Of whom and of what he was influenced

Space time
Space & Time

  • Where the narration has been occurred.

  • And in what period of time did the author relate the events.

Another features
Another Features

  • Topic/Leitmotif (a frequently recurring MOTIF, related to and expressive of a character, situation, or event.

  • Characters (country, cosmopolitan, simple…)

  • Structure (epistolary, linear, logic, chronological, x parts + conclusion…)

  • Techniques (descriptions, idioms, dreams, citations, sermons, personification, prolepsis…)

  • Style (expressions, ironic, satire…)

  • Language (formal, colloquial, local language, high vocabulary, romantic…)

  • Plot/Dénouement(1-The main incident of a NARRATIVE; the outline of situations and events. 2- The arrangement of incidents,e.g., triangular plot, 3 persons…)

  • Classification (what kind..)

  • Thesis (final or conclusion of a thought)

Point of view
Point of View

This is the perceptual and conceptual position in terms of which the narrated situations and events of the story are presented.

The Point of View, who sees, should be distinguished from voice, who speaks.

Gérard Genette


  • This is an UNKNOWN narrator, the one who adopts, whose view follows the geographical displacements, intellectual and sentimental sphere of influence of the characters.

  • His position varies, sometimes it is untraceable.

Another point of view focalization
AnotherPoint of ViewFocalization

It could be subjective, technique that neutralizes completely the presence of the narrator, situated in a character (internal p.o.v., everything is presented in the terms of knowledge, feelings, and perceptions of the same character or different one.

It could be, the author p.o.v., that is the 1st person narrator. In this case we notice the pronoun “I” in the text.

Finally, it may be objective that emanates from a local point situated in the DIEGESIS (fictional world) but outside of any of the characters (any thinking or feeling being).

It excludes all information on feelings and thoughts and it is limited to registering the characters’ words and actions, their appearance, and the setting against which they come to the fore.