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Simulation & simulacra. The Environment in Cultural Studies. simulation. 'Simulation: a copy without a source, an imitation that has lost its original. theory about how our images, our communications and our media have usurped the role of reality our mediated world

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simulation simulacra

Simulation & simulacra

The Environment in Cultural Studies

simulation
simulation
  • 'Simulation: a copy without a source, an imitation that has lost its original.
  • theory about how our images, our communications and our media have usurped the role of reality
  • our mediated world
  • simulation is a philosophy of reality and of our changing relations with it.' (Sean Cubitt 2000)
simulacra
simulacra
  • Present historical moment characterized as an era of simulations
  • Models (as when a situation comedy simulate real family life)
  • Idea of the distinction between an original and a copy becomes disrupted
  • Duplications represent the real
  • “It is no longer a question of imitation, nor duplication, nor even parody. It is a question of substituting the signs of the real for the real” (Baudrillard 1994)
environment
environment
  • ‘themed environments’ – simulate history and locales with art, architecture, and theater
  • To recreate an historical and cultural ambience
  • To present it as a commodity
  • Sometimes “branded” – fused with well-known, highly advertised product/product lines
  • E.g., ESPN Zone restaurants
  • Decontenxtualized history and art to create sites where culture and commerce mix to expand their markets
pastiche
pastiche
  • a work is called pastiche if it is cobbled together in imitation of several original works
  • "Pastiche is, like parody, the imitation of a peculiar or unique, idiosyncratic style, the wearing of a linguistic mask, speech in a dead language. But it is a neutral practice of such mimicry, without any of parody's ulterior motives, amputated of the satiric impulse, devoid of laughter“ (Jameson 1991)
  • "the cannibalization of all the styles of the past, the play of random stylistic allusion…” (Ibid.)