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Active Violence RESPONSE

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  1. Active Violence RESPONSE

  2. AGENDA • Lessons learned from previous incidents for how to handle “active violence incidents” (AVI) • The Evolution of Police Response • “Hands-on” tactics • What Is active violence? • Prevalence of mass killings in United States • Violence affecting institutions of higher education • In an emergency, what do you do? • Individual level preparedness • Oversight within your office/classroom spaces • Police response • Alert and notification • Prevention strategies and resources

  3. MSU POLICE ROLE • Primary responding law enforcement agency • Proactive training for all police officers and the community for emergency preparedness • Participates in planning, training and sharing information with local, county, state and federal agencies • Develops and maintains campus notification system


  5. COLUMBINE: The Attack • April 1999: Two students fired 188 shots, killing 13 and wounding 24 in under 20 minutes • 76 explosive devices planted at the school, two diversionary devices, 13 found in their cars, and eight in their homes, totally 99 explosive devices • Two propane bombs in cafeteria capable of killing 600+ had they worked properly • The original plan was to kill as many people with the bombs as possible and then kill others as they exited the school • Their hatred of the world and their school was well documented and although they had a kill list, not a single person on it was killed. They wanted a spectacle of death and destruction and had no intention of living • Well planned, poorly executed

  6. COLUMBINE: Lessons Learned • Incidents are spontaneous • Suspect(s) are unpredictable • Pre-incident signs were evident • Incidents involve target rich environments • First responders were outgunned and not sufficiently trained • Tactical intervention too late to effectively resolve the situation • Multi-jurisdictional issues were evident

  7. COLUMBINE: Learning from Tragedy • Most important: Changed tactic of sitting and waiting for the “Calvary” (SWAT) to go in as soon as possible and putting an end to the threat • Gave birth to new tactics and training and the idea of the “active violence incident”

  8. VIRGINIA TECH MASSACRE • April 16, 2007 at 7:15am: First victims shot and killed in their residence Hall • Incident was originally believed to be an isolated killing • Suspect Cho’s actions • left scene • returned to his residence hall room • changed out of blood stained clothes • Deleted his emails, removed hard drives, disposed of drives and cell phone • 9:01am: Cho goes to post office, mails a package of writings and videos to NBC News. • Walks to Norris Hall. In a backpack, he is armed with several chains, locks, a hammer, a knife, two handguns with nineteen 10 and 15 round magazines, and nearly 400 rounds of ammunition

  9. VIRGINIA TECH MASSACRE • Lone gunman-preplanned the event • Did dry run several days before the event • Knew there were only three entrances that he chained from the inside so even if students fled classrooms, the exits were blocked • Later learned that a student saw one door chained and walked around to try to get out a different door before the shooting started, but never saw that as unusual or something about which to call the police

  10. VIRGINIA TECH MASSACRE • Norris Hall Shooting • Cho placed a note on at least one chained door, claiming attempts to open would cause a bomb to explode • Prior to the shooting commencing, a faculty member found the note and took it to the building’s third floor to notify the school’s administration. • The bomb threat was never called into police • Shortly thereafter, the first shots were heard on the second floor • Within a couple minutes of the first shots, the first call to 911 was received

  11. VIRGINIA TECH MASSACRE • According to several students, before the shooting began Cho looked into several classrooms, some a couple of times • Room 206: Cho first shot and killed the professor, then continued shooting, killing nine of the 13 students in the room and injuring two others • Room 207: Cho went across the hall and killed the instructor and four students; six students were wounded • Room 204 and 211: In both of these classrooms, Cho was initially prevented from entering, due to barricades erected by instructors and students • In room 204, the professor forcibly prevented Cho from entering the room • held the door closed until most of the students escaped through the windows. The professor died after being shot multiple times through the door. One student in his classroom was killed

  12. VIRGINIA TECH MASSACRE • Room 211: • An instructor and a student were killed as they attempted to barricade the door, additionally 10 others were killed in this room • Six students survived, all suffered gunshot wounds • Approximately 10–12 minutes after the attack began, Cho shot himself in the head • During the Norris Hall assault • Fired at least 174 rounds of ammunition • 30 people were killed: five faculty members and 25 students • All of the victims were shot at least three times • 28 were shot in the head • 17 were wounded by Cho; six were injured escaping through windows

  13. “Active Violence” Defined • Suspect(s) using a weapon in an ongoing assault causing the immediate death or serious injury of multiple victims • The situation is not contained and there is immediate risk of continued danger to other victims • Our Philosophy: We will neutralize the threat! • You need to do whatever it takes to survive until help arrives!

  14. The “Active Violence Incident” • Desire is to kill and seriously injure without concern for his/her safety or threat of capture • May have intended victims and will search them out • Accepts targets of opportunity while searching for or after finding intended victims • Will likely continue to move throughout building/area until stopped by law enforcement, suicide, or other intervention

  15. MASS KILLING FREQUENCY • Since 2006, there have been more than 200 mass killings in the United States • Mass killings are defined as four or more victims

  16. TARGETED VIOLENCE AFFECTING INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION • FBI and Secret Service study published in April 2010 • Campus AttacksTargeted Violence Affecting Institutions of Higher Education • Directed Assaults by Decade, 1900-2008

  17. Campus AttacksTargeted Violence Affecting Institutions of Higher Education • Across all 272 incidents • The subjects caused 281 deaths • At least 190 were students • At least 72 were employees • Injured 247 individuals. • At least 144 were students • At least 35 were employees. • Not included in these numbers are the subjects themselves who were injured or killed either during or following the incident. • In 26 percent (n = 71) of the incidents, the subject committed suicide • In 4 percent of the incidents (n = 11), the subject survived his self-inflicted injuries • In an additional 4 percent of the incidents (n = 10), the subject was killed by law enforcement during or immediately following the assault


  19. BEING PREPARED AT MSU • MSU Faculty and Staff are expected to provide direction during an Active Violence Incident • This will help provide the greatest opportunity for a positive outcome • Students and visitors will look to faculty/staff for direction • Recommended syllabus insert on active violence • • How will you survive an active violence incident?

  20. SURVIVAL MINDSET VIDEO “I will survive” “I will escape” “I will see my loved ones” “I will win”

  21. ON-SCENE RESPONSE • Two special police response units may be called into action in the event of an armed encounter • Active Violence Incident Teams (AVI) • All MSU police officers and mutual aid agencies are trained in this protocol and recertify annually • Rapid-response, national best-practice protocol to stop the threat from someone actively using a weapon • Allows for life saving action to be taken immediately if the suspect continues to take lives or injure people

  22. ON-SCENE RESPONSE • Ingham Regional Special Response Team (IRSRT) • Local tactical team includes MSU Police • Uses scenario-based training • Can activate a full variety of resources to assess and respond to a situation in which someone is threatening the community • Requires a minimal period of time to activate, equip and arrive at the scene • If incident reverts to a barricaded gunman, IRSRT will likely handle response

  23. WHAT SHOULD YOU DO… • “Figure Out” • Did you hear gunfire? If it sounded like a gunshot, act accordingly until proven otherwise • Where is the threat • How many shooters are there • “Get Out” • If you can get away from the source of danger SAFELY, then do it! • Move quickly and don’t wait for others to validate your decision • Leave belongings behind (except your cellular phone if it is nearby)

  24. WHAT SHOULD YOU DO… • “Call Out” • Once you get to a safe area, call 911 and give the dispatcher as much information about the incident as possible • Dialing 911 from a cell phone or University phone will connect you with the Ingham Regional 911 Center dispatchers • There are approximately 200 “Greenlight” Emergency phones located throughout campus which connect directly to our 911 Center • If you cannot get through to 911, the MSU Police Non-Emergency number can be reached at 517-355-2221

  25. WHAT SHOULD YOU DO… • Call out – What to report • Specific location of the threat • Building name • Building address if you know it • Room number/what floor • Description of the threat • Number of assailant(s) • Clothing description • Physical features-height, weight, facial hair, glasses, etc. • Type of weapons (rifle/shotgun, handgun, bombs, knives) • Have you heard explosions separate from gunshots or do you see or smell smoke • Is the assailant(s) carrying a backpack or other item • Approximate number of people at location in danger • Are there any injuries • Numbers • Types

  26. WHAT SHOULD YOU DO… • “Hide Out and Keep Out” (Secure-in-Place) • If the shooter is between you and an exit; try to find a place that can conceal and protect you • Call 911 only if you can do so without alerting the shooter to your location • If possible, find a room that can be locked and that has objects to hide behind • Do not pull the fire alarm as a method of initiating an evacuation of the building • Noise of alarm may prohibit people from identifying location of threat • Evacuation route may force people into the path of the threat

  27. WHAT SHOULD YOU DO… • “Hide Out and Keep Out” – If you are in a building • Secure the immediate area-whether conference room or office • Lock the door. Plan for this in advance. Know the locking mechanisms for each location you work/learn • Block doors using whatever is available-desks, file cabinets, media carts, books, other furniture, etc. • If the shooter enters your room and leaves, lock/barricade the door behind him/her

  28. WHAT SHOULD YOU DO… • “Hide Out and Keep Out” – If you are in a building continued… • Doors, Windows, Openings, and Noise • Close blinds • consider whether the windows can serve as an avenue of escape if needed • If yes, how will you break them • Cover door windows if possible • Silence cell phones and other loud devices • After securing room, people should be positioned out of sight and behind items that might offer additional protection such as walls, desks, cabinets, etc. • Keep occupants calm and quiet

  29. WHAT SHOULD YOU DO… • “Hide Out and Keep Out”- If you are outside during a secure-in-place emergency • Seek cover in the nearest unlocked building. • If the buildings in immediate area are locked • Continue to move away from location of danger • Move to another building farther from the danger • Leave campus if it is safe to do so

  30. WHAT SHOULD YOU DO… • “Hide Out and Keep Out” • What If Someone Wants to Enter a Secure Area? • If there is any doubt about the safety of the individuals inside the room or building, the area needs to remain secure. Allowing someone to enter a secure location may endanger you and others. USE GOOD JUDGMENT. • If there are individuals outside the secured door who wish to get in, several factors should be considered if it is safe: • Can you see the area outside the door to determine that someone is not lying in wait? Is it a trap? • If a physical description of the subject was given in the secure-in-place alert, consider similarities such as age, race, clothing description, height, sex, and hair and eye color.

  31. WHAT SHOULD YOU DO… • “Hide out and Keep Out” • If the decision is made to let a person in, consider the following: • Have the person leave anything he or she is carrying (a backpack, laptop case, package, etc.) on the ground, outside the secure area. • Have the subject lift up his or her shirt, coat, and/or jacket until the waistline is visible and rotate 360 degrees to see if he or she is concealing a weapon. • Remember, always use common sense. There are exceptions to all guidance and prescribed directions.

  32. WHAT SHOULD YOU DO… • “Spread Out” • If you have to hide, DO NOT huddle together with others if it can be avoided. • Groups of people make an easy target for the shooter • Quietly develop a plan of action in the event the shooter enters your area. • Remain calm and keep others focused on survival. • What will you do if shooter enters your area?

  33. WHAT SHOULD YOU DO… • “Take Out” • If you have no other options, you may have to take out the active shooter. • Assume he/she will kill you if you come face to face with the shooter. • Convince yourself that you WILL SURVIVE this encounter. • Prepare your mindset now! • If you decide to take him/her on, you will need to be more aggressive than you ever thought possible. • Do what it takes to survive when your life is on the line. • Throw things, use improvised weapons, work as teams if possible. • KEEP MOVING! A moving target is harder to hit than a stationary one!

  34. POLICE RESPONSE • It is important for you to convey to others that help is on the way. Remain inside the secure area • The MSU Police goals are to locate, contain, and stop the threat (shooter, bomber, etc.) • Injured persons • Initially, responding officers will NOT treat the injured or begin evacuation until the threat is neutralized • You may need to explain this to others in an attempt to calm them • Once the threat is neutralized, officers will begin treatment and evacuation

  35. Things To Do When Police Arrive • Remain in secure areas until instructed otherwise • Raise your arms • Spread your fingers • Follow the officers’ commands

  36. Things NOTTo Do When Police Arrive • DO NOT point at the police or shooter • DO NOT make quick movements toward officers such as attempting to hold onto them for safety • DO NOT have anything in your hands. Officers are trained “hands kill” • Keep in mind responding officers may not initially know who the active shooter is upon their arrival

  37. POLICE RESPONSE • Evacuation • Safety corridors will be established. This may be time consuming • You may be instructed to keep your hands on your head as you walk/run out • You may be searched • You will be escorted out of the building by law enforcement personnel

  38. PAST MSU INCIDENTS • Berkey Hall, 2007 • Olin Health Center, 2008 • Conrad Hall - Full Scale Exercise, 2012 • Bessey Hall, 2014

  39. ALERT AND NOTIFICATION • Upon learning of an active shooting incident, the Michigan State University Police will send an Alert message giving instructions to the registered faculty, staff, and students. For more information on the alert system or to register for messages go to • Sample: MSU ALERT, Active Shooter at { location } exit if you can safely or secure-in-place immediately. Please advise others if you can. for more info • Even if your building is not in immediate danger at the time of the Alert or incident, secure-in-place and consider safe exit strategies if threat ends up on the move • Use this teachable moment to keep class/workplace safe and discuss how you would react if the incident was happening in your workspace. • We do not do “live drills” of the Alert system. Any emergency Alert that is received should be treated as true threat • Once new information is obtained, it will be relayed through multiple sources such as additional Alerts,, our website, and local media.

  40. ALERT AND NOTIFICATION • MSU Alert recorded phone message • Siren systems • CodeBlue Speaker Systems (Residence Halls) • Other: • Public or Media Sources • MSU Mass Distribution E-mail • Internet: MSU Homepage


  42. PREVENTION • We cannot predict the origin of the next threat • In many active shooter incidents, pre-incident indicators were observed • If you see something unusual, say something. • Behaviors of concern: • Acts of violence • Possession of a dangerous weapon or firearm on campus • Persistent disorderly or substantially disruptive behavior • Unusual, bizarre, or disturbing behavior • Behavior that is significantly outside the boundaries of socially acceptable behavior • Stance of being substantially “in charge” or attempting to control processes, outcomes, or decisions that are inappropriate given the person’s standing or position • Threats of violence or physical harm • Expressing significant violent ideation or the expression of violent ideas or the intent to harm self or others • The individual engages in a pattern of physical or emotional bullying and/or intimidation • Destructive behavior • Stalking behavior

  43. PREVENTION • “TRUST YOUR GUT” – When in doubt, report an incident or statement • Supervisors – Make sure people feel comfortable coming to you with concerns • Address issues immediately. Don’t wait for it to fester into something more • Know how to use University resources such as the Student Judicial System and Employee Relations

  44. RESOURCES - BTAT • Behavioral Threat Intervention Team (BTAT) • Respond to reports of incidents where students, employees or other individuals on campus have engaged in behavior indicating a possible threat of harm to self or others • Multidiscipline approach • MSU Police Department • Counseling Center • University Physician • Student Health Services (Psychiatry Services) • Student Affairs and Services • Residence Education and Housing Services • ADA Coordinator (Office for Inclusion and Intercultural Initiatives) • Dean of the Graduate School / Dean of Undergraduate Education • Human Resources • Academic Human Resources • The BTAT meets to assess the likelihood of risk and identify actions that can be taken to potentially mitigate the risk. • May make recommendations for Interim Suspension and Mandatory Assessments • May refer to other on-campus resources as deemed appropriate • The team also works to help faculty, staff, and administrators effectively interact with such individuals • Establish clear behavioral expectations • Describe the potential consequences for failure to meet those expectations within the context of established University policies.

  45. RESOURCES - BTAT • BTAT Goals • Support a safe, productive working and learning environment • Educate the campus community to identify and report potential threats • Provide early, prompt, and effective intervention • How do you contact BTAT • • On-line form • Contact information

  46. OTHER COMMUNITY RESOURCES • MSU Police: Non-emergency: 517-355-2221; 911 for emergencies; ; Twitter: @msupolice; Facebook: • EAP(Employee Assistance Program) – This is an employee benefit that allows six free counseling sessions for employees and their families. • Student Life-Judicial Affairs • MSU COUNSELING CENTER – For Students and student employees • MSU HR DEPARTMENT – Can assist you in making connections to resources as a condition of employment

  47. TRAINING RESOURCES • The Department of Homeland Security also has a free 45 minute online training video (IS-907) • The MSU Police Department Website contains valuable information and videos related to this material.

  48. Questions?