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U.S. Constitution

U.S. Constitution. Purpose of Government Articles of Confederation Foundations of New Constitution Ideals And Framework of Constitution Bill of Rights Legislative Branch Executive Branch Judicial Branch. Purpose of Government. Vocabulary. Purposes of Government.

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U.S. Constitution

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  1. U.S. Constitution Purpose of Government Articles of Confederation Foundations of New Constitution Ideals And Framework of Constitution Bill of Rights Legislative Branch Executive Branch Judicial Branch

  2. Purpose of Government

  3. Vocabulary

  4. Purposes of Government • 1. Helping People Cooperate • 2. Providing Services • 3. Providing Rules • 4. Putting Ideas into Practice

  5. Helping People Cooperate • Provides way for people to unite and cooperate • People are able to live an work together • When people live together it is necessary to have government • Makes life safer and easier • Cooperation Think About It…. In our society, what ways can you think of that government helps people to cooperate with one another, which makes our day to day life easier and safer??

  6. Providing Services • Government allows large groups of people to get demanding jobs done • Since government takes care of some day to day things, citizens are able to focus their attention on other things, such as holding a job, caring for their family, etc…. • Government provides…. • Education • Protection (fire dept., police dept., FBI, CIA, Military) • System of money • If citizens were responsible for all of this, they would have many more responsibilities and worries, our country might be more chaotic

  7. Providing Rules • People need rules to allow them to live in peace with one another • People know what they may and may not do • Without rules, any disagreement would probably end with strongest members forcing ideas on others • Rules are known as laws • Laws are written by government to guide and protect all of us • Basic laws are contained in the Constitution • Written plan of government • Sets forth purpose of government • Describes how government is to be organized

  8. Putting Ideals Into Practice • Government puts into practice the things the people believe in • Our government founded on idea that people should rule themselves • No one should be denied their rights • Declaration of Independence • Life, liberty and pursuit of happiness • Freedoms can never be taken away or restricted……(unless they are being used to violate the rights of others)

  9. Articles of Confederation

  10. Vocabulary

  11. Declaration of Independence • Thomas Jefferson • Approved by Continental Congress July 4, 1776 • States reasons breaking away from Great Britain • Upholds philosophy on which the U.S. is based • Power of government comes from consent of the governed • If government ignores will of the people, people have a legitimate right to change the government • States the American ideals • Explains the purpose of government is to protect human rights

  12. All People Are Equal Under The Law “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.” • Founding Fathers believed such ideals were worth, “our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.”

  13. Forming a New Government • June 1776, Continental Congress appointed committee to draw up a plan of government • Articles of Confederation • Approved in 1781, new government formed • Confederation, loose association

  14. Components of Articles of Confederation • Each state having equal powers, Independent of the other states • National government very limited powers • Majority did not want a strong central government • Might use power to limit freedom of states • Congress made up of 1 lawmaking body, Congress • States send 1 representative, giving them one vote (regardless of population) • States had power to enforce national laws, promoting states’ sovereignty(absolute power) • Did not establish a national court system • No one to interpret laws or punish lawbreakers

  15. Think About It….. Why did the states prefer the Articles of Confederation, and how did this plan affect the national government? • Suspicious of strong leadership after their experience with King George III

  16. Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation • Had trouble passing laws • 9 out of 13 states needed to pass important measures • No president, no officials to ensure the laws were being carried out • No national courts • No way of interpreting laws or judging those who broke them • Congress lacked power to collect taxes • No power to force states to make contributions to help pay off debt • Could not pay debt and could not pay soldiers • No power to control trade between states or with foreign nations • States regulated their own trade • No stable currency or banking system • States issued their own money

  17. Weaknesses of Articles of Confederation Cont… • States acted more like small, separate nations than members of confederation • States refused to obey laws of Congress • Worsening relationships between states and Congress ***Articles of Confederation did not provide the central government with enough authority to address many problems faced by the new country

  18. Need for Change • Main problem with Articles…they did not give the national government enough power to operate effectively • Citizens lacked a national identity • Think of themselves as from their states rather than as Americans • States have limited contacted with each other • Difficult to agree on common interests for which government needed to work

  19. Problems facing the new country… National Government was powerless to get involved or settle…. • States arguing over boundary lines • Disputes over trade Leaders began to favor strengthening the national government • 1787 Congress asked states to send representatives to a meeting • Making revisions to the Articles could be discussed

  20. Journal Create a web in your journal showing the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.

  21. Journal….. • No national executive branch to enforce laws • No national courts to interpret laws or judge those who broke laws • Changed required unanimous votes of states • Congress not allowed to collect taxes to pay debts or pay necessary programs • Not allowed to regulate trade • Not allowed to issue official currency

  22. Foundations of New Constitution

  23. Vocabulary

  24. Constitutional Convention • May 1787, Independence Hall in Philadelphia • Every state sent leaders (except Rhode Island) • Delegates, representatives • Looking for way to improve national government • Changing Articles would not be enough, instead looking to create a completely new plan of government • Ended up writing a new Constitution • It is the same constitution that we follow today • World’s oldest written constitution still governing a country today

  25. The Delegates • 55 delegates • George Washington chosen to preside over Convention • Benjamin Franklin (81) was oldest delegate • Other delegates included: • James Madison • Alexander Hamilton • James Wilson • Roger Sherman • William Paterson • Edmund Randolph • Thomas Jefferson at time serving as U.S. ambassador to France, he was not present

  26. English Heritage • Leaders familiar with history, learned from the past • Wanted Americans to enjoy all of the rights the English people had fought for • Magna Carta • English Bill of Rights • Parliamentary Government

  27. Magna Carta • English nobles won these rights from King John (1215) • Guaranteed that free people count not be arrested, put in prison, or forced to leave their nation unless they were given a trial by a jury of their peers • Citizens are to be judged according to English law only • Protected rights of Parliament against the monarch

  28. English Bill of Rights • 1689 • Delegates want to guarantee Americans these same rights • Right to petition, or request, government to improve or to change laws • Right to a fair punishment

  29. Parliamentary Government • Parliament, lawmaking body of Great Britain • Bicameral, consists of two houses • Parliament made up of two houses • House of Lords, appointed by Monarch • House of Commons, elected by the people • Each house check and improve the work of the other house • Administration of the government is performed by prime minister • Chosen by party that holds the most seats in the House of Commons • Chooses top official in government • Can be replaced by Parliament if a majority vote is met

  30. Secret Meetings • Delegates pledged to hold meetings in secret • Agreed not to discuss any of the business of Convention outside the Convention • Delegates could speak freely during meetings • Did not want to be pressured by outsiders • Some criticized the secrecy • Without secrecy, agreement on difficult issues might not have been possible • James Madison kept a journal of the proceedings of each meeting • Chief source of information about Convention • Kept secret until after his death • Allow us to know what took place at each meeting

  31. Writing Constitution • Wanted to give national government more power • Wanted states to keep the powers needed to govern their own affairs • System of federalism(federal system) • Division of powers between the national government and state governments • Heated debate between the delegates • Settled disputes on ideas and proposals with a series of compromises • Agreement which each side gives up part of its demands in order to reach a solution to a problem

  32. Debate over Representation • Most serious disagreement over representation in new legislature, lawmaking body • Larger states favored representation based on population • Smaller states wanted equal number of reps in legislature for each state • Debated for weeks during hot summer months of 1787 • Came to a compromise • Bicameral house called Congress • Senate, states would have equal representation • House of Representatives, states would be represented according to population • Agreement came to be known as Great Compromise

  33. Stronger National Government • Coin and print money • Raise Armed forces • Regulate trade among states and with foreign nations • Set taxes • President to carry out country’s laws • Supreme Court and national courts to interpret laws

  34. Sept. 1787 • Delegates had completed their work • No delegate was happy about every single part of the new Constitution • They had written the best constitution possible • Sept. 17, 1787 Constitution was signed • 39 out of 42 framers present

  35. Seeking Approval • Constitution had to be sent to states for ratification before everything was completed • Ratification, approval • Each state set up special convention to vote • Some supported, others opposed it • 9 out of 13 states needed to ratify for the constitution to be put into place

  36. Federalists • Supporters of Constitution • Favored a strong government • Necessary to keep country united • Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, James Madison were leading Federalists • Published articles known as Federalist Papers to increase support

  37. Antifederalists • Those who opposed Constitution • Feared a strong central government • Defeated purpose of Revolutionary War • Believed the proposed Constitution would protect neither the states’ power nor the people’s freedom

  38. Constitution is Ratified • Federalists gained more support • Citizens upset that Constitution is lacking a list of the rights of the people • Most ratified in 1787 and 1788 • Required ninth state ratified in June 1788 • New government began to operate in March 1789 • North Carolina and Rhode Island did not ratify until after it went into effect • NYC chosen as temporary capital • Both houses of Congress begin their work • April 30, 1789 George Washington sworn in as first president of United States

  39. Using Lucid Chart Copy the chart that is listed on the bottom of page 46 in your Civics book. Use it to show some of the Constitution’s main ideas, its influences, and the compromises that allowed for its passage.

  40. Ideals and Framework of Constitution

  41. Vocabulary

  42. Consent of the Governed • Popular sovereignty, consent of the governed • Appears in the Preamble • Introduction to Constitution • Explains why the U.S. Constitution was written “We the people of the United States, In order to form a more perfect Union, Establish Justice, Insure Domestic Tranquility, Provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.”

  43. Preamble’s Statement of 6 Goals • 1. Form More Perfect Union: new government should be a better union of states than those created under Articles • 2. Establish Justice: government should make laws and establish a system of courts that are fair to all • 3. Insure Domestic Tranquility: government should preserve peace within the country • 4. Provide for the Common Defense: government should work to protect the country from its enemies • 5. Promote the general welfare: government should help provide for the well-being of all the people • 6. Secure the Blessings of liberty: government should work to safeguard the freedom of the people

  44. Representative Democracy (Republic) • Based on consent of the people who are governed • If they are dissatisfied, they can let their representatives know what they believe should be done • Elect new representatives in the next election • Majority rule, when people disagree, everyone accepts the decision of the majority, or more than half of the people

  45. Federal System • Federalism • Powers divided between national and state government • National government governs the whole country • State governs people living in each state • Federal System includes both federal governments and governments of each of the 50 states • Federal Government has certain powers • All powers not given to federal government remain with the state governments

  46. Delegated Powers • Those powers the Constitution specifically gives to the federal government • Coin Money • Power to control trade with foreign nations • Provide for the country’s defense

  47. Reserved Powers • Powers reserved or set aside for the states or the people • State or the people have all powers that Constitution does not specifically give to the federal government • Conduct elections • Regulate trade within states • Establish local governments

  48. Concurrent Powers • Powers shared by federal and state • Raise funds through taxation • Power to borrow money • Establish courts • Charter Banks • Enforce laws • Punish lawbreakers • Provide for the health and welfare of their people • When state law disagrees with Constitution or a federal law, the state must give way to the federal government • Constitution and laws of federal government shall be “supreme law of the land”

  49. Limited Government • Framers of Constitution wanted to keep the new federal government from becoming too powerful • Limited government, Government with defined restrictions to its power • Idea came from the Magna Carta

  50. Powers of the People • Bill of Rights • Freedoms that belong to every citizen of the United States • New government should have consent of the people they govern • Could only have as much power as the people wanted to give it • Wanted to limit, or check, the powers of the federal government • Government of the United States would be responsible to the American people

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