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Occupational Exposure to 1,3-Butadiene. 29 CFR 1910.1051. Chemical Identification. Gaseous monomer: CH 2 =CH-CH=CH 2 Stored as liquid under pressure Stabilizer added to prevent formation of polymer during storage. Production and Use. US production, 1991: 3 billion pounds (almost all by

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Occupational exposure to 1 3 butadiene

Occupational Exposureto 1,3-Butadiene

29 CFR 1910.1051


Chemical identification
Chemical Identification

  • Gaseous monomer: CH2=CH-CH=CH2

  • Stored as liquid under pressure

  • Stabilizer added to prevent formation of polymer during storage


Production and use
Production and Use

  • US production, 1991: 3 billion pounds (almost all by

  • ethylene co-product process)

  • Used in manufacture of

  • Rubber (about 60% of total)

  • Precursors of Nylon

  • Rocket propellants

  • Lubricating oil additives

  • Agricultural fungicides

  • Latexes

  • Resins

  • Industrial solvents

  • Anthroquinone dyes


Health effects
Health Effects

  • CNS effects (e.g., headaches, nausea, blurred vision) from very high acute exposures

  • Eye, nose, and throat irritation

  • Irritation and frostbite from contact with liquefied butadiene

  • Leukemia and other lymphohematopoietic cancers and possible reproductive effects from chronic exposures


Benefits of standard
Benefits of Standard

  • 7600 US workers exposed to significant concentrations of butadiene, as high as 10 ppm

  • New standard estimated to prevent at least 59 cancer deaths over a 45-year working lifetime


History of butadiene bd rulemaking
History of Butadiene (BD) Rulemaking

  • 1971 - OSHA adopted original standard for BD: 1000 ppm (TWA) Source: 1968 ACGIH TLVs

  • 1983 - NTP determined BD causes cancer in rodents; OSHA and EPA published RFI


History cont d
History (cont’d)

  • 1984 - EPA published ANPR under TSCA; various unions petitioned OSHA for ETS; petitions denied

  • 1985 - EPA completed risk assessment and referred BD to OSHA

  • 1986 - OSHA published ANPR

  • 1990 - OSHA published PR with 2 ppm TWA and 10 ppm STEL


History cont d1
History (cont’d)

  • 1992 - IARC designated BD as probable human carcinogen

  • 1996 - Joint labor/industry group submitted voluntary agreement outlining recommendations for final rule; OSHA requested comments on recommenda- tions; final rule published November 4, 1996: PELs of 1 ppm TWA, 10 ppm STEL, and AL of 0.5 ppm


Unique features of standard
Unique Features of Standard

  • Respirators - Short replacement intervals specified for air-purifying cartridges/canisters because of rapid breakthrough and migration of BD through filter elements

  • Medical Surveillance - Periodic review of aggregated information from medical screening program to determine whether employees adversely affected by BD


Unique features cont d
Unique Features (cont’d)

  • Written Exposure Goal Program

    • Required where exposures > AL

    • Includes the following unless employer can show they are not feasible, effective, or necessary:

      • Leak detection and prevention

      • Local exhaust ventilation maintenance

      • Pump exposure control technology

      • Gauging devices to limit exposure

      • Unloading devices to limit exposure

      • Engineering controls in control rooms


A scope and application
(a) Scope and Application

  • All occupational exposures to 1,3-Butadiene (BD)

  • Exceptions

    • Objective data

    • Liquid mixtures containing 0.1% or less BD by volume

    • BD or liquid mixtures in intact containers or sealed transportation pipelines


B definitions
(b) Definitions

  • “Business day” - any Monday through Friday, except those days designated as federal, state, local or company specific holidays

  • “Complete Blood Count (CBC)”

    • White blood cell count (WBC)

    • Hematocrit (Hct)

    • Hemoglobin (Hgb)

    • Differential count of white blood cells

    • Red blood cell morphology

    • Red blood cell indices

    • Platelet count


B definitions cont d
(b) Definitions (cont’d)

  • “Day” - any part of a calendar day

  • “Emergency situation” - any occurrence such as, but not limited to, equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure of control equipment that may or does result in an uncontrolled significant release of BD


C permissible exposure limits pels
(c) Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs)

  • 8-Hour TWA: 1 ppm

  • STEL: 5 ppm

    There is also an Action Level (AL) of 0.5 ppm established by the standard.


D exposure monitoring
(d) Exposure Monitoring

  • Representative; breathing zone samples

  • Initial monitoring unless

    • Objective data exist

    • Equivalent monitoring within previous two years

  • Periodic monitoring

    • Where results at or above AL but at or below both PELs

    • Where either PEL exceeded


D exposure monitoring cont d
(d) Exposure Monitoring (cont’d)

  • Termination of monitoring

  • Additional monitoring

  • Accuracy of monitoring

  • Employee notification of results

  • Observation of monitoring


E regulated areas
(e) Regulated Areas

  • Wherever exposures exceed or can be expected to exceed either PEL

  • Limited access

  • Demarcation of area

  • Communication with other employers


F methods of compliance
(f) Methods of Compliance

  • Engineering controls and work practices

  • Respirators as supplemental protection

  • Written compliance plan

  • Employee rotation as a method of compliance prohibited


G exposure goal program
(g) Exposure Goal Program

  • Written plan

  • Required where exposure exceeds AL

  • Updated as necessary

  • Respirator use not required


G exposure goal program cont d
(g) Exposure Goal Program (cont’d)

  • Includes the following (unless not feasible, not effective, or not necessary to reduce exposures below AL)

    • Leak detection and prevention program

    • Local exhaust ventilation maintenance

    • Pump exposure control technology

    • Gauging devices to limit exposure

    • Unloading devices to limit exposure

    • Engineering controls in control rooms


H respiratory protection
(h) Respiratory Protection

  • Allowable during time to implement engineering and work practice controls and as supplement where such are not adequate to achieve PELs; for non-routine, infrequent, and limited-duration operations; in emergencies

  • Respirator program in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.134 (b) - (d) [except (d)(1)(iii), (d)(3)(iii)(B)(1), and (2)] and (f) - (m)

  • Selection governed by Table 1; NIOSH-approved under 42 CFR Part 84

  • PAPRs or supplied air respirators provided for employees who cannot use negative pressure respirators


H respiratory protection cont d
(h) Respiratory Protection (cont’d)

  • Replacement intervals for cartridges/ canisters governed by

    • Table 1 or

    • 90% of expiration-of-service life or

    • NIOSH-approved end-of-service-life indicator (when available)

  • Replacement mandatory any time an employee can smell BD


I protective clothing and equipment
(i) Protective Clothing and Equipment

  • To prevent eye contact and limit dermal exposure

  • Eye and face protection governed by 29 CFR 1910.133


J emergency situations
(j) Emergency Situations

Written plan for applicable elements of

  • 29 CFR 1910.38, “Employee Emergency Plans and Fire Prevention Plans”

  • 29 CFR 1910.120, “Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response”


K medical screening and surveillance
(k) Medical Screening and Surveillance

  • Coverage

    • Currently exposed employees

    • Previously exposed employees

  • Administration by physician or other licensed health care professional

  • Frequency

    • Health questionnaire and complete blood count annually

    • Physical examinations initially, every 3 years or more frequently at discretion of licensed health care professional, and at termination if 12 or more months have elapsed

    • Within 48 hours following an emergency


K medical screening and surveillance cont d
(k) Medical Screening and Surveillance (cont’d)

  • Content

    • For anticipated exposure

    • For emergency exposure

  • Written medical opinion to employer and employee within 15 business days

  • Periodic review of aggregated medical screening data to determine whether employee population adversely affected by exposure; employees informed of any information learned


L communication of bd hazards to employees
(l) Communication of BD Hazards to Employees

  • Communication of hazards as required by Hazard Communication Standard

  • Training program for employees potentially exposed at or above the AL or STEL to be repeated annually

  • Contents of training program beyond the Hazard Communication Standard

    • Medical screening and surveillance

    • Contents of standard and appendices

    • Rights to employee medical and exposure records


M recordkeeping
(m) Recordkeeping

  • Objective data for exemption from initial monitoring - maintain for duration of reliance on data

  • Exposure measurements - maintain for 30 years

  • Respirator fit test records - maintain until next fit test

  • Medical screening and surveillance - maintain for duration of employment plus 30 years


N dates
(n) Dates

  • Effective date: February 2, 1997

  • Start-up dates:

    • Initial monitoring within 60 days of effective date

    • Engineering controls within 2 years of effective date

    • Exposure goal program within 3 years of effective date

    • Other requirements, including feasible work practice controls, within 180 days of effective date


O appendices
(o) Appendices

  • Informational

    • A - Substance Safety Data Sheet for 1,3-Butadiene

    • B - Substance Technical Guidelines for 1,3-Butadiene

    • C - Medical Screening and Surveillance for 1,3-Butadiene

    • D - Sampling and Analytical Method for 1,3-Butadiene

    • F - Medical Questionnaires

  • Reserved - Appendix E