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Occupational Exposure to Metalworking Fluids. Presented at the Occupational Hygiene Association of Ontario Spring Symposium March 28, 2007 By Lorraine Shaw, B.Sc., CIH, ROH Occupational and Environmental Health Laboratory, McMaster University. Outline. Overview

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occupational exposure to metalworking fluids

Occupational Exposure to Metalworking Fluids

Presented at the Occupational Hygiene Association of Ontario Spring Symposium

March 28, 2007

By Lorraine Shaw, B.Sc., CIH, ROH

Occupational and Environmental Health Laboratory,

McMaster University

outline
Outline
  • Overview
      • Types of MWF, Health Effects, Standards, Exposure Assessment
  • Objectives of the Study
  • Methodology
      • Selection of Plants, Laboratory Investigation, Field Investigation, QC and Statistics
  • Results
      • Laboratory and Field Results
  • Conclusions
overview i
Types of MWFs:

Oil-based:

Insoluble (neat)

Soluble (30% - 85% oil)

Water-based:

Semi-synthetic (5%-30% oil)

Synthetic (no oil)

Health Effects:

Cancer

Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP)

Respiratory Effects

Dermatitis

Overview (I)
overview ii
Regulations and Exposure Standards:

Ontario Ministry of Labour:

Oil, mineral, mist 5 mg/m3 TWAEV, 10 mg/m3 STEV

ACGIH TLV-TWA (Mineral Oil) in 2006 notice of intended changes :

Mineral Oil Used in metal working

Poorly and mildly refined 0.2 mg/m3 (Inhalable) A2

Highly and severely refined 0.2 mg/m3 (Inhalable) A4

Proposed NIOSH REL for all types of MWF (1998):

0.5 mg/m3(Total) 0.4mg/m3 (Thoracic)

Exposure Assessment:

Sampling Devices:

ie. Total, Thoracic (BGI), IOM, Direct Reading Instrument (DustTrak)

Particle size selective sampling

Overview (II)
objectives
Objectives
  • Assess and Validate Analytical Methods
  • Assess Air Sampling Methods
  • Collect Current Representative Occupational Exposure Data
  • Assess Exposure Exceedance
  • Compare Ontario Exposure with Published Data

(Mainly Water-Based MWF’s)

methodology
Methodology
  • Selection of 4 Plants in Ontario
  • Laboratory Investigation
  • Field Investigation
  • Quality Control and Statistical Analysis
laboratory investigation
Laboratory Investigation
  • NIOSH Method (0500) – Total Aerosol
  • NIOSH 5524 – Extractable MWFs
  • HSE Method (MDHS 95) – Marker Element
  • Sample Recovery
  • Detection Limits
  • Sample Stability During Storage
field investigation
Field Investigation
  • Collection of Air Samples
    • Personal
    • Area
  • Size Selective Samples
    • Total
    • Thoracic (MMAD = 10 µm)
    • Respirable (MMAD = 4 µm)
    • Inhalable (MMAD = 100 µm)
    • Direct Reading Instrument (DustTrak)
air sampling devices
Air Sampling Devices

Total Sampler

IOM Inhalable Sampler

DustTrak Aerosol Monitor Direct Reading Instrument

BGI 2.69 Cyclone Thoracic Sampler

Respicon Size-Selective Particle Sampler

qc and stats
QC and Stats
  • QUALITY CONTROL
    • Laboratory
    • Field
  • STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
    • Excel and Minitab 13
results laboratory investigation
Results: Laboratory Investigation
  • Sample Recovery
    • Our Study 83.5%
    • NIOSH Study 95 %
  • Detection Limit
    • Our Study 35µg
    • NIOSH Study 28 µg
  • Storage Study (Sample Stability)
    • Room Temp – NOT Stable
    • Refrigerator – 2 days
    • Freezer – 7 days
results airborne concentrations mg m 3
Results:Airborne Concentrations (mg/m3)
  • % Exceedance is based on log normal distribution
  • ze = -log(GM/STD) / log(GSD)
conclusions i
Conclusions (I)
  • HSE method proved problematic
  • Both NIOSH method 0500 or 5524 can be used
  • preferred method is the 5524
  • Detection limits, sample recovery etc. were similar to NIOSH study
  • Samples should NOT be stored at Room Temp
  • Samples should be analyzed within 2 or 7 days depending on storage temperature
conclusions ii
Conclusions (II)
  • Ratio of Thoracic to Total aerosol is about 0.7
  • Range of exposures in Ontario (0.04 to 3.84 mg/m3) is similar to others (NIOSH & OSHA)
  • Percent exceedance based on data set and assumption of log normality is 38% with respect to NIOSH REL
  • Respiratory effects reported at levels below 0.5 mg/m3
  • Total Protection requires AIR, DERMAL and FLUID management