4.3 Conservation of biodiversity. Why should we preserve habitats and species? Four reasons why - partner. The value of the rainforest. Goods from RF - resources – wood, food, medicine Ecosystem ‘services’ What services does the RF ecosystem provide?. Ecosystem services:
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Why should we preserve habitats and species?
Four reasons why - partner
What services does the RF ecosystem provide?
Think of the abiotic factors in the RF system
Economic values of the rainforest:
RF services: Abiotic, biotic - biodiversity
Compare and contrast the role and activities of intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations in preserving and restoring ecosystems and biodiversity.
Bodies established through international agreements to protect the environment
Not run by, funded by or influenced by governments of any country
Is it preferable to have one large reserve, or a number of smaller ones of the same total area?
Conservation biologists identify this question with the acronym SLOSS, which stands for: single large, or several small. According to ecological theory, populations in larger protected areas should have a smaller risk of extinction, compared to those in smaller reserves. However, if there are populations in several different reserves, the redundancy might prevent extinction in the event of a catastrophic loss in one reserve.
Total number of species of amphibians and reptilians on seven different islands in the West Indies. Based on Figure 2 on page 8 of "The theory of island biogeography" by MacArthur and Wilson, itself based on research by Darlington circa 1957. (Hence, the numbers are likely to differ from actual numbers today
Reserves can also be designed to have less edge (or ecotone) habitat. This refers to transitions between ecosystem types, such as that between a forest and a field. Edge habitat is often penetrated by invasive species and predators, which can become important problems in some protected areas. In addition, many species require interior habitat for breeding; meaning they are intolerant of ecotones. Larger protected areas have proportionately more interior habitat, as do simple-shaped ones (a circle has the smallest ratio of edge to area).
For many ecological functions to operate well, there must be connections among habitats. This is particularly true of the dispersal of plants and animals. This need can be accommodated if protected areas are linked by corridors of suitable habitat, or if they are clumped close together. However, corridors might also serve as conduits for invasive species and diseases.
The conservation of biodiversity in protected areas also requires the monitoring of key ecological values, such as the populations of endangered species and the health of natural ecosystems. It may also be necessary to conduct research to determine the appropriate kinds of management required, and to then implement that management. Management includes actions such as patrolling to prevent poaching of timber and animals, altering habitats to maintain their suitability for threatened species, and captive breeding and release of endangered species.
Protected Area - Design Of Protected Areas - Habitat, Species, Edge, Reserves, Conservation, and Biologists http://science.jrank.org/pages/5532/Protected-Area-Design-protected-areas.html#ixzz1XEpvzR00
Protected Area - Management Of Protected Areas - Species and Endangered http://science.jrank.org/pages/5533/Protected-Area-Management-protected-areas.html#ixzz1XEs4zBz8
Read the article on Mkomazi game reserve in Tanzania - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mkomazi_Game_Reserve
How did the reserve come into being?
Which is it; S.L.O.S.S? What other reserves does it link to?
What was the initial impact on local residents?
What does Tony Fitzjohn do for the displaced peoples?
Where and how does he get his funding?
What 2 critically endangered species are being targeted? How is each being conserved?
What do critics claim is Mkomaziis becoming a ‘benchmark’ for? Do you think it is a fair judgement?
Black Rhino: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Black_Rhinos_Kenya.jpg
African Wild Dog: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lycaon_pictus_(Temminck,_1820).jpg
The map (you can resize it) taken from: http://www.rgs.org/NR/rdonlyres/8E81543E-AAFB-42F5-A694-8218E7D4AB62/0/Mkomazi.pdf
Local Masai: http://lh5.ggpht.com/_OLjkq7vEFfQ/TC33LoQRcoI/AAAAAAAAHAk/qROJoWn-y6I/DSCN2133.JPG
Look at the following site for an alternative perspective using an example in Ethiopia. http://www.conservationrefugees.org/
Managing the ecosystem to ensure survival
Protected Area - Design Of Protected Areas