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he Development of Polyphony. Polyphony in the ninth and tenth centuries. Artistic style of Carolingian/imperial period — addition of mass Addition of weight to chant magadizing (parallel singing) troping Only textbook musical examples survive. Textbook descriptions of early organum.

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polyphony in the ninth and tenth centuries
Polyphony in the ninth and tenth centuries
  • Artistic style of Carolingian/imperial period — addition of mass
  • Addition of weight to chant
    • magadizing (parallel singing)
    • troping
  • Only textbook musical examples survive
textbook descriptions of early organum
Textbook descriptions of early organum
  • Musica enchiriadis, Scolica enchiriadis (ca. 900) – Frankish
  • Vox principalis doubled at fifth or fourth below by vox organalis
    • note-against-note style (punctus contra punctum)
    • both may be doubled in octaves, producing both fifths and fourths
  • Oblique (and contrary) motion
    • provides sense of opening and closing
    • allows temporary dissonance and resolution
guido of arezzo micrologus ca 1025 principles for organum
Guido of Arezzo, Micrologus (ca. 1025) — principles for organum
  • Allows voice crossing
  • More variety of intervals — sometimes from drone effect in vox organalis
  • Contrary-motion cadences become the norm
music in the romanesque period
Music in the Romanesque period
  • Social stability leads to time and interest for composition — period of troubadours
  • Sacred and secular societies developed skill and time for rehearsal of complicated music
winchester troper early eleventh century examples of organum
Winchester Troper (early eleventh century) — examples of organum
  • Principal voice generally above, but some voice crossing
  • Mostly note-against-note texture
  • Organal voice has wider range
  • Considerable use of dissonance, often seems empirical or even haphazard
  • Mixed motion — preference for 3–1 contrary-motion cadences
ad organum faciendum french ca 1100 how to improvise organum
Ad organum faciendum (French, ca. 1100) — how to improvise organum
  • Principal voice lower (sometimes crosses)
  • Mostly note-against-note texture
  • For soloists in responsorial chants — organal part has wider range
  • More conservative harmony than Winchester style (melodic style suffers)
  • Fourths and fifths most common, also uses unison and octave and even thirds and sixths
  • Contrary-motion cadences
aquitainian polyphony st martial organum
Aquitainian polyphony — St. Martial organum
  • New polyphonic style
    • principal voices not always based on standard liturgical music
    • principal voice lower, but occasionally voices cross
  • Distinction of types
    • organum (later organum purum) — melismatic or florid
    • discant — more or less note-against-note passages, actually neume against neume
  • Versus style — rhymed, metrical poetry
  • Rhythm in all types roughly indicated by alignment
codex calixtinus ca 1170
Codex Calixtinus (ca. 1170)
  • From Santiago de Compostela
    • major pilgrimage site via several monasteries in southern France, including St. Martial
    • important Romanesque cathedral
  • Manuscript named for Pope Calixtus (or Calixtine) II (r. 1119–1124)
  • Mostly liturgical monophony — twenty polyphonic examples appended
    • style comparable to Aquitainian repertoire
    • organal style mostly for responsorial chants
    • discant style for versus and other ensemble music
gothic architectural aesthetics
Gothic architectural aesthetics
  • Not just elaboration but order
  • High and layered
  • Intricate decoration
  • Ex., Notre Dame de Paris
university of paris
University of Paris
  • Gathering of teachers – order applied to learning
  • Charter — 1200 (name “universitas” 1215)
  • Discipline faculties
    • arts
    • medicine
    • law
    • philosophy
    • theology
a student s day at the university of paris an ordered schedule
A student’s day at the University of Paris — an ordered schedule
  • 5:00–6:00 — arts lectures
  • Mass
  • 8:00–10:00 — lectures
  • 11:00–12:00 — disputations or debates
  • 1:00–3:00 — repetitions with tutors on morning lectures
  • 3:00–5:00 — special-topic lectures
  • 7:00–9:00 — study, repetitions with tutors
scholasticism order applied to knowledge
Scholasticism — order applied to knowledge
  • Method
    • lecture based on reading of authoritative text
    • orderly treatment of pros and cons
    • disputation
  • Leaders
    • Peter Abélard (1079–1142), Sic et non — applied reason to theological issues
    • Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274), Summa theologica — covered all of theology
early composers of gothic polyphony identified by anonymous iv
Early composers of Gothic polyphony — identified by Anonymous IV
  • Léonin (Magister Leoninus, fl. ca. 1175) — university background
    • Magnus liber organi — solo parts of responsorial chants of Office and Mass for liturgical year
  • Pérotin (Magister Perotinus, fl. ca. 1200) — major contributions identified by Anonymous IV
    • revised and replaced parts of Léonin’s work
    • organum triplum, organum quadruplum
    • “optimus discantor” — wrote many clausulae
types of notre dame polyphony
Types of Notre Dame polyphony
  • Organum purum
    • lower voice ultra mensuram (called tenor)
    • more likely when tenor is more syllabic
  • Discant
    • both voices measured — requires rhythmic notation
    • more likely when tenor is melismatic
  • Clausula
    • discant segment
    • new compositions may have substituted for preexisting discant clausulae
ordering rhythm in the discant clausula
Ordering rhythm in the discant clausula
  • Patterning of tenor rhythm – repetition of an ordo (pl. ordines)
  • Paired with rhythm in different mode in duplum
  • Early tendency for tenor and duplum ordines to match; later more common to overlap
polyphonic conductus in notre dame style nonliturgical polyphony
Polyphonic conductus in Notre Dame style — nonliturgical polyphony
  • Texts
    • could be for religious use and on religious topics
    • often secular — expresses cultural concerns outside church
      • lament
      • civic events
    • Johannes de Grocheio (ca. 1320): “sung at parties of the wealthy and educated”
  • Music
    • two to four voices
    • newly composed tenor
    • generally syllabic, familiar style
    • often has melismatic caudae
  • Begins with addition of words (mots) to untexted upper voice(s) of independent discant clausulae
  • Polytextual — named by all three texts (triplum, motetus, tenor)
stages in the content of motet texts
Stages in the content of motet texts
  • Early — gloss on text of tenor
  • Later — free secular, vernacular
    • may still be distant gloss on tenor text
    • closely related to trouvère song — even borrowing melodies (motet enté –“grafted”)
stages in style development in motets
Stages in style development in motets
  • As with discant, rhythmic ordines lend unity
    • more sophistication in staggering phrasing among lines
  • Texting
    • two-part composition — second text in motetus
    • three-part composition — same text in motetus and triplum
    • three-part composition — different texts in motetus and triplum
  • Distinctions in style among lines — layered rhythm
  • Tenor treatment
    • repetition to increase length
    • freely composed — called “tenor” or “neuma”
social position of 13th century motets
Social position of 13th-century motets
  • Originally developed in sacred context
  • Came to be used as secular genre for elite class
    • Johannes de Grocheio (ca. 1320) — motets in modern style only for the educated, who could understand their subtlety
    • Jacques de Liège (ca. 1320) — aimed at educated lay society
motet in late 13th century
Motet in late 13th century
  • Franco of Cologne (fl. 1250–1280) — theorist and composer
  • Problem of how to indicate rhythm in syllabic music — motets (conductus)
  • Solution
    • note shapes — long, breve, double long, semibreve (L, B, DL, SB)
    • dots to mark perfections
  • practical result — choirbook notation to save space — use of parts rather than score
motet in choirbook notation
Motet in choirbook notation

Petrus de Cruce, S'amours eust point de poer / Au renouveler / Ecce

new problems for the motet
New problems for the motet
  • Petrus de Cruce (fl. 1270–1300) — composer and theorist
  • Free rhythm and even shorter note values in upper parts — many SBs in the space of a B (rhythmic inflation)
questions for discussion
Questions for discussion
  • How was the development and spread of polyphonic music in the eleventh and twelfth centuries a product of political and social conditions and events?
  • How did different cultural, political, and ecclesiastical institutions in Paris around 1200 contribute to the growth of a Gothic polyphonic style?
  • What aspects of contemporary cultural and aesthetic tendencies did the thirteenth-century motet express?