Midterm Practice

1 / 26

# Midterm Practice - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Midterm Practice. Famous Fallacies, TFTD, Hurley 4.1 - 4.7. For the Midterm …. I will provide you with a categorical proposition, like… All cars that are not Mazdas are cars with good jingles I’ll ask you for its quality qualifier quantity quantifier copula distribution letter name

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

## Midterm Practice

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

### Midterm Practice

Famous Fallacies, TFTD, Hurley 4.1 - 4.7

For the Midterm …

I will provide you with a categorical proposition, like…

All cars that are not Mazdas are cars with good jingles

• quality
• qualifier
• quantity
• quantifier
• copula
• distribution
• letter name
• terms
1

How many quantifiers are there? List them…

2

How many qualifiers are there? List them…

3

Memorize distribution!

All SD are P

No SD are PD

Some S are P

Some S are not PD

4

Standard Form…

Which is in standard form, and why?

No Jimmy Johns subs are slathered in mustard

Some eyebrow tweezings are less than pain free procedures

5

Consider:

No non-A are B (T) Contraposition

• Some non-A are B. (F)
• All A are non-B. (Und.)
• No non-B are A. (T)
• Some non-A are not B. (T)
• No non-B are A. (Und.)
6

Consider:

All A are non-B. (F) Obversion

• All A are non-B. (F)
• All non-B are A. (Und.)
• No A are non-B. (Und.)
• No A are non-B. (F)
• Some non-A are not B. (T)
7

Consider:

Some A are not non-B. (T)  All A are non-B.

• Contraposition (T)
• Contrary (F)
• Conversion (T)
• Obversion (T)
8

Consider:

Some non-A are B. (F)  Some B are non-A.

• Subcontrary (T)
• Conversion (Und.)
• Contraposition (Und.)
• Conversion (F)
• Contraposition (F)
9

Consider:

Some A are non-B. (F)  Some A are not non-B. (F)

• Illicit, contrary
• Illicit, subalternation
• Subcontrary
• Illicit, subcontrary
• Contraposition
10

No S are P. (Aristotelian standpoint)

After filling in the diagram …

• Area 2 is shaded, and there is a circled X in area 1.
• Areas 1 and 3 are shaded.
• Area 1 is shaded, and there is a circled X in area 2.
• There is an X in area 2.
• Area 1 is shaded, and there are no other marks.
11

All S are P. (Boolean standpoint)

After filling in the diagram …

• Areas 1 and 3 are shaded.
• Area 2 is shaded, and there are no other marks.
• Area 1 is shaded, and there is a circled X in area 2.
• There is an X in area 2.
• Area 1 is shaded, and there are no other marks.
12

Shade area 2 and place an X in area 1.

Which of the following would be valid inferences:

• an X in area 3.
• an X in area 1.
13

Shade area 1 and place an X in area 2.

Which of the following would be valid inferences:

• an X in area 3.
• shaded area 1, and X in area 2.
14

Consider:

No non-A are B. (T)  Some non-A are not B. (F)

• Illicit, subalternation
• Illicit, subcontrary
• Conversion
15

Assume Boolean (Modern) standpoint.

Consider:

No A are B. (T)  Some A are B. (F)

• Existential fallacy
• Illicit, subcontrary
• Conversion
16

Assume Boolean (Modern) standpoint.

Consider:

No A are B. (T)  All A are B. (F)

• Existential fallacy
• Illicit, contrary
• Illicit, subcontrary
• Conversion
17

All red sounds are rough flavors.

 Some red sounds are rough flavors.

• Existential fallacy
• Valid, subcontrary
• Invalid, subalternation
• Invalid, contrary
18

Know these Famous Fallacies:

No Fallacy!

Ad Hominem (abusive, circumstantial, you too!)

Appeal to the People (ad populum)

Appeal to Unqualified Authority (ad vericumdiam)

Faulty Dilemma (compare to ultimatum)

Composition

Division

Weak Analogy

Hasty Generalization

19

Know these sorts of definition…

Real

Genus-Difference

Verbal

Ostensive

Operational

Stipulative

Reportive

Enumerative

Etymological

Synonymous

20

Know the 3 theories of truth, and their general problems…

21

“There were only 2 people in the room at the time of the murder … we can, therefore, exclude the fact that there was a large crowd in the room at that time.”

Is this a correct, or incorrect use of the notion of a fact?

22

Identify the species, genus, and difference at work in these Genus-Difference definitions…

An elephant is an animal with a trunk

22 (continued)

Elephant = animal trunk

Laptop = computer for your lap

Species

Genus

Difference

Species

Genus

Difference

23