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Midterm Practice. Famous Fallacies, TFTD, Hurley 4.1 - 4.7. For the Midterm …. I will provide you with a categorical proposition, like… All cars that are not Mazdas are cars with good jingles I’ll ask you for its quality qualifier quantity quantifier copula distribution letter name

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Midterm Practice


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midterm practice

Midterm Practice

Famous Fallacies, TFTD, Hurley 4.1 - 4.7

for the midterm
For the Midterm …

I will provide you with a categorical proposition, like…

All cars that are not Mazdas are cars with good jingles

I’ll ask you for its

  • quality
  • qualifier
  • quantity
  • quantifier
  • copula
  • distribution
  • letter name
  • terms
slide3
1

How many quantifiers are there? List them…

slide4
2

How many qualifiers are there? List them…

slide5
3

Memorize distribution!

All SD are P

No SD are PD

Some S are P

Some S are not PD

slide6
4

Standard Form…

Which is in standard form, and why?

No Jimmy Johns subs are slathered in mustard

Some eyebrow tweezings are less than pain free procedures

slide7
5

Consider:

No non-A are B (T) Contraposition

  • Some non-A are B. (F)
  • All A are non-B. (Und.)
  • No non-B are A. (T)
  • Some non-A are not B. (T)
  • No non-B are A. (Und.)
slide8
6

Consider:

All A are non-B. (F) Obversion

  • All A are non-B. (F)
  • All non-B are A. (Und.)
  • No A are non-B. (Und.)
  • No A are non-B. (F)
  • Some non-A are not B. (T)
slide9
7

Consider:

Some A are not non-B. (T)  All A are non-B.

  • Contraposition (T)
  • Contrary (F)
  • Conversion (T)
  • Obversion (T)
  • Contradictory (F)
slide10
8

Consider:

Some non-A are B. (F)  Some B are non-A.

  • Subcontrary (T)
  • Conversion (Und.)
  • Contraposition (Und.)
  • Conversion (F)
  • Contraposition (F)
slide11
9

Assume Aristotle (Traditional standpoint).

Consider:

Some A are non-B. (F)  Some A are not non-B. (F)

  • Illicit, contrary
  • Illicit, subalternation
  • Subcontrary
  • Illicit, subcontrary
  • Contraposition
slide12
10

No S are P. (Aristotelian standpoint)

After filling in the diagram …

  • Area 2 is shaded, and there is a circled X in area 1.
  • Areas 1 and 3 are shaded.
  • Area 1 is shaded, and there is a circled X in area 2.
  • There is an X in area 2.
  • Area 1 is shaded, and there are no other marks.
slide13
11

All S are P. (Boolean standpoint)

After filling in the diagram …

  • Areas 1 and 3 are shaded.
  • Area 2 is shaded, and there are no other marks.
  • Area 1 is shaded, and there is a circled X in area 2.
  • There is an X in area 2.
  • Area 1 is shaded, and there are no other marks.
slide14
12

Shade area 2 and place an X in area 1.

Which of the following would be valid inferences:

  • shaded area 2.
  • an X in area 3.
  • an X in area 1.
  • shaded 1.
  • no X’s or shadings.
slide15
13

Shade area 1 and place an X in area 2.

Which of the following would be valid inferences:

  • shaded area 2.
  • an X in area 3.
  • shaded area 1, and X in area 2.
  • shaded 1.
  • no X’s or shadings.
slide16
14

Assume Aristotle (Traditional standpoint).

Consider:

No non-A are B. (T)  Some non-A are not B. (F)

  • Illicit, subalternation
  • Illicit, contradictory
  • Contradictory
  • Illicit, subcontrary
  • Conversion
slide17
15

Assume Boolean (Modern) standpoint.

Consider:

No A are B. (T)  Some A are B. (F)

  • Existential fallacy
  • Illicit, contradictory
  • Contradictory
  • Illicit, subcontrary
  • Conversion
slide18
16

Assume Boolean (Modern) standpoint.

Consider:

No A are B. (T)  All A are B. (F)

  • Existential fallacy
  • Illicit, contrary
  • Contradictory
  • Illicit, subcontrary
  • Conversion
slide19
17

Assume Aristotle (Traditional standpoint)

All red sounds are rough flavors.

 Some red sounds are rough flavors.

  • Existential fallacy
  • Valid, contradictory
  • Valid, subcontrary
  • Invalid, subalternation
  • Invalid, contrary
slide20
18

Know these Famous Fallacies:

No Fallacy!

Ad Hominem (abusive, circumstantial, you too!)

Appeal to Pity (ad misericordiam)

Appeal to Force (ad baculum)

Appeal to the People (ad populum)

Appeal to Unqualified Authority (ad vericumdiam)

Faulty Dilemma (compare to ultimatum)

Composition

Division

Weak Analogy

Hasty Generalization

slide21
19

Know these sorts of definition…

Real

Genus-Difference

Verbal

Ostensive

Operational

Stipulative

Reportive

Enumerative

Etymological

Synonymous

slide22
20

Know the 3 theories of truth, and their general problems…

slide23
21

“There were only 2 people in the room at the time of the murder … we can, therefore, exclude the fact that there was a large crowd in the room at that time.”

Is this a correct, or incorrect use of the notion of a fact?

slide24
22

Identify the species, genus, and difference at work in these Genus-Difference definitions…

An elephant is an animal with a trunk

A laptop is a computer made to sit in your lap

22 continued
22 (continued)

Elephant = animal trunk

Laptop = computer for your lap

Species

Genus

Difference

Species

Genus

Difference

slide26
23

Read section 4.7 on your own.

You will have 4 sentences to translate, but none of them will involve converting a single statement into 2 categorical propositions.

Good luck!