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Definition: an expression of praise, approval, esteem, or honor PowerPoint Presentation
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accolade. History : In Medieval England, the accolade was the embrace about the neck or the tapping of a sword on the shoulders to confer knighthood. Definition: an expression of praise, approval, esteem, or honor

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Definition: an expression of praise, approval, esteem, or honor


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slide1

accolade

History:

  • In Medieval England, the accolade was the embrace about the neck or the tapping of a sword on the shoulders to confer knighthood.

Definition:

  • an expression of praise, approval, esteem, or honor

From the common Latin accollare& the Italian accolata “to hug or embrace around the neck”

slide2

conclave

Definition:

  • A private gathering of a select group of people where discussion is kept secret

From Latin conclave, “a room which may be locked”; com = together + clavis = key

History:

  • In church history, dignitaries would meet in secret for the purpose of selecting the next pope; the gathering was surrounded with secrecy and known as a papal conclave
slide3

dirge

History:

Dirigewas the first word of a Roman Catholic service called “The Office of the Dead.” The Latin phrase, “dirige, dominus meus, in conspectu tuo viam meam,” comes from Psalm 5:8, “Direct, O Lord my God, my way in Thy sight.”

Definition:

  • A somber song expressing mourning or grief, especially at a funeral

Contraction of the Latin word dirige, meaning “direct”

slide4

draconian

History:

  • Draco, the Greek statesman, laid down a code of laws for Athens around 621 B.C. His laws mandated death as punishment for minor crimes. They were known as the Draconian Laws.

Definition:

  • Extremely harsh or severe, especially in regards to rules or punishment

From the name of the Greek statesman Draco whose name meant “sharp-sighted” and from which we also get the word “dragon.”

slide5

epicurean

History:

Ironically, the Greek philosopher Epicurus taught “moderation in all things.” He taught that pleasure was the highest good but at the cost of some pain and, therefore, moderation was the key. When the English began to use the word, they focused on the single idea of pleasure.

Definition:

  • Devoted to sensual pleasure and luxury, good food especially; the philosophy of “eat, drink, and be merry”

Named for the Greek philosopher Epicurus

slide6

gossamer

History:

In the early days of England the season starting in November was called gossamer, or “goose summer.” This was the time when the geese were plucked and eaten. This time of the year is when silver cobwebs are often found floating in the air or in the grass.

Definition:

  • Fine cobwebs often seen floating in the air or covered with dew on the ground
  • any delicate gauze-like fabric

From Old English gos, meaning “goose” and sumer, “summer”

slide7

immolate

History:

In ancient days, lambs were often led to slaughter as animal sacrifices for the sins of the people. Just before making the sacrifice, the Romans would sprinkle mola, “meal” on the lamb. The original meaning was often used in reference to the sacrifice of Christ.

Definition:

  • To kill an animal or person in ritual sacrifice or to commit suicide as an act of protest, usually by fire

From the Latin immolatus, “sprinkled with meal”

slide8

juggernaut

History:

In Hinduism, Krishna was the chief Hindu deity and “lord of the world” (Jagannath). Each year, when the idol of Krishna was dragged through the streets of Puri, India, worshippers threw themselves beneath the wheels of the cart and were crushed in frenzies of devotion.

Definition:

  • A relentless, crushing force that is destructive and insensitive
  • Anything to which someone is blindly enslaved

From Hindi Jagannath, meaning "lord of the world“

slide9

junket

History:

In early France, custard was often made and taken to market in a basket of rushes, causing the custard to eventually take on the name of the basket. These baskets suggested a picnic, which is probably why the word became associated with the hoity-toity excursions of congressmen.

Definitions:

  • An expense-paid trip, or excursion, especially one made by a politician
  • A dessert made with milk and rennet (curds & whey)

From the Latin juncus, meaning “rush,”; Middle Latin juncata, and later French jonquette, meaning “rush basket”

slide10

ostracism

History:

When the ancient Athenians felt a public figure was dangerous, the citizens would assemble in the market place and vote whether he should be banished. They cast their votes on ostrakon; if 6000 were cast, the victim was kept out of state for 5-10 years.

Definition:

  • Banishment; exclusion from society by general consent

From Greek “ostrakon,” meaning tile or potsherd

slide11

proletariat

History:

In ancient Rome, those who owned no property were exempt from taxes and military service. They served the state by having children. Marxism popularized this term.

Definition:

  • The working class; those who earn their living by manual labor.

From the Latin proletarius “citizen of the lowest class” and the Latin proles, “offspring, progeny.”

slide12

rigmarole

History:

The English king Edward I wanted Scotland as a vassal kingdom. Since the Scottish kings and nobles were in no position to argue the matter, they agreed and presented Edward with documents of allegiance called ragman roll (1291). The documents were composed of mixed and various papers and signatures; thus the transference of meaning to “confusion.”

Definition:

  • A ridiculously complicated procedure; an irritating, tedious, or confusing sequence of tasks; a task or statement that seems unnecessary or absurd.

From Old English ragman roll, “a long list or catalog”

slide13

rubric

History:

In medieval religious services, directions for the order of service were often written in redwriting and found as headings in the book of prayer or liturgy.

Definition:

  • A printed title or heading
  • A set of printed rules or instructions

From Old French rubrique, and from Latin rubrica, “red ochre, red coloring matter.”

slide14

Socratic

History:

The Greek philosopher Socrates (469-399 B.C.) used a method of eliciting truth by question and answer, inquiry and debate. His teaching methods are still used today and often referred to as “Socratic seminars.”

Definition:

  • Of or relating to Socrates, his philosophy, or his method of arriving at the truth.

From the name of the Greek philosopher Sokrates, “having safe might.”

slide15

sycophant

History:

“Showing the fig” in ancient Greece was a vulgar gesture made by sticking the thumb between two fingers, a display which vaguely resembles a fig. Prominent politicians in ancient Greece refrained from such vulgar gestures, but privately urged their followers to taunt their opponents. The idea of a “mean, servile flatterer” was first recorded in Medieval England.

Definition:

  • One who flatters someone in power for personal gain; a self-seeking flatterer

From from Latin sӯcophanta, “informer, talebearer” and Greek sukophantēs, “the person showing a fig.”