What do you think? • Write a definition for a psychological disorder. • Do not give examples or define specific disorders- what does it mean to have a psychological disorder?
Disorders in History • Psychological disorder (1959) = “the failure of the suffering individual to adapt to his or her environment” • Social deviance as disease • Who is to blame?
Mental Disorder - Today • Pattern of behavioral/psychological symptoms that cause personal distress and impairs functioning
Personal Distress • The behavior/symptoms causes significant personal distress to the patient (may not realize) • Potential harm to self or others
Psychological Disorder • distressing & harmful; disruptive • behavior is uncontrollable • Unjustified, Irrational • Must have personal distress and impaired functioning
Impairs Functioning • Daily life functioning is impaired (one or both) • Work/School life • Home life • Varies throughout time/ culture
Question to Ponder • Does having an abnormal behavior mean you have a disorder? • When does one have an disorder?
How have disorders been classified? • How would you classify someone with a “mental” problem? • Cause or effect?
What would you do? • What do you think is the best way to treat someone with a disorder? • What has changed over the years in terms of how we look at disorders? • Do you think people have always been treated fairly?
Video of Disorders • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tz1XY72QUz4&feature=related
Ancient causes of “madness” • movements of sun or moon • lunacy- full moon (lunar) • evil spirits
Ancient “cures” • Exorcism • Lobotomy • Caged like animals, beaten, burned, castrated, mutilated • blood replaced with animal’s blood! • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bi-3LufJKVs
What do you think… • Was the treatment benefical to patients? • Really? Why
Today • This is what we use today to classify people with disorders- DSM-IV-TR • Why do we need a way to classify disorders?
Diagnosis DSM-IV-TR Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders describes specific symptoms and diagnostic guidelines for psychological disorders • Provides a common language & comprehensive guidelines to help diagnose
Insanity • legal definition only • unable to determine between right & wrong or understand consequences
What do you think • How easy do you think it would be to classify someone as insane?
Let’s Watch a brief introhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Cr7IomSy8s
Anxiety Disorders An unpleasant emotional state characterized by general, vague feelings of tension, fear and apprehension Anxiety =
When does this become a disorder? • We all experience anxiety – if not experience anxiety you have issues… we will talk you about later • So when do we move from normal anxiety to a disorder?
Distressing, persistent feelings • And/or • The behaviors that reduce anxiety… Anxiety Disorders differ from general feelings of anxiety in that… … begin to control and dominate life!
Anxiety Disorders are… • Irrational (exaggerated or non existent threats, response is out of proportion) • Uncontrollable (can not be “turned off”, even if the person wants to) • Disruptive (interferes with life)
5 Types of Anxiety Disorders • GAD • Panic • Phobias • PTSD • OCD
Let’s get a quick look at Generalized Anxiety Disorder http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dRmBJhtys9g
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) • Constant worry about many issues w/o cause, seriously interferes with functioning • Physical symptoms • headaches • stomach aches • muscle tension • irritability
Panic Disorder • Panic attacks—sudden episode of helpless terror with high physiological arousal (increased blood pressure, heart beat, temp., sweating) • Very frightening —sufferers live in fear of having them
Phobias Intense, irrational fears that may focus on ……. Inappropriate response to ……….. Yes this does not make sense to “normal” people
Bunch of Phobias • You do not need to know the specifics, but you need to know the category…. • If there is something to fear it can and will be feared by someone
Fear of being in situations in which escape might be difficult, they don’t feel safe- public places, crowds, wide open spaces • Mostly confined to homes- they are safe there • One the most common • Agoraphobia
Natural environment type • the fear of heights (acrophobia) • the fear of lightning and thunderstorms (astraphobia).
Situational type • the fear of small confined spaces (claustrophobia) • being "afraid of the dark," (nyctophobia). • Monophobia—fear of being alone • Gephyrophobia - Fear of crossing bridges. • Ligyrophobia — Fear of loud noises. • Xenophobia — Fear of strangers, foreigners, or aliens.
Blood/injection/injury type • the fear of medical procedures including needles and injections (aichmophobia) • Algobphobia—fear of pain • Pyrophobia—fear of fire • Emetophobia — Fear of vomiting. • Radiophobia— Fear of radiation or x-rays • Hemophopia (Haemophobia) — Fear of blood
Animal type • the fear of spiders (arachnophobia) • the fear of snakes (ophidiophobia). • Ailurophobia—fear of cats • Myrmecophobia — Fear of ants. • Cynophobia — Fear of dogs or of rabies. • Mottephobia — Aversion to moths and butterflies.
Other • the fear of the number 13 (triskaidekaphobia) • the fear of clowns (coulrophobia). • Anthropophobia—fear of men • Ephebiphobia — Fear/dislike of teenagers. • Zapatophobia - Fear of shoes, socks, or sandals.
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Percentage of people surveyed Snakes Being in high, exposed places Mice Flying on an airplane Being closed in, in a small place Spiders and insects Thunder and lightning Being alone In a house at night Dogs Driving a car Being In a crowd of people Cats Afraid of it Bothers slightly Not at all afraid of it Common and uncommon fears
Follows events that produce intense horror or helplessness (traumatic episodes) Actual or threatened death and/or injury War, Rape, Accidents, Attacks, Abuse, Rescue workers May be delayed after event- onset with trigger Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Core symptoms include: • Frequent recollection of traumatic event, often intrusive and interfering with normal thoughts • Avoidance of situations that trigger recall of the event • Increased physical arousal associated with stress
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) • Obsessions—irrational, disturbing thoughts that intrude into consciousness • Compulsions—repetitive actions performed to alleviate obsessions
The compulsions (actions) help to keep away the obsessions (thoughts) • If the actions are not performed==anxiety • Observable or mental compulsions
OCD Examples • Obsessions about getting hurt, hurting someone, getting sick, contamination, symmetry • Compulsions= cleaning, checking, hoarding, touching, counting, arranging, ordering, repeating phrases
Review • What are the characteristics of a disorder? • When does anxiety “regular” anxiety turn into a disorder? • Make your charts • Disorder in the middle • 1st square - Define it, 2nd square -define all the types of disorders, 3rd square – examples of each type, 4th non-examples of each type
Personality Disorders • Inflexible, maladaptive pattern of thoughts, emotions, behaviors • stable over time and across situations • deviate from the expectations of the individual’s culture
Antisocial Personality Disorder • Might start as conduct disorder (children) • Manipulative, charming, “con man” • Cruel, destructive • Lacking “conscience”, no guilt, no responsibility
Borderline Personality Disorder • Instability of mood, self-image, relationships • Self-destructive behaviors, impulsive • Fear of abandonment