CONFLICT MANAGEMENT. What is conflict. A STATE OF COLLISION OR DISAGREEMENT WITHIN INDIVIDUAL BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS BETWEEN GROUPS. NATURE. IS INEVITABLE ARISES FROM MANY CAUSES CONTRIBUTES AND DETRACTS ORGANISATINAL PERFORMANCE. CAUSES/ SOURCES. ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE
What is conflict A STATE OF COLLISION OR DISAGREEMENT • WITHIN INDIVIDUAL • BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS • BETWEEN GROUPS
NATURE • IS INEVITABLE • ARISES FROM MANY CAUSES • CONTRIBUTES AND DETRACTS ORGANISATINAL PERFORMANCE
CAUSES/ SOURCES • ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE • DIFFERENT SET OF VALUES • THREAT TO STATUS • CONTARSTING PERCEPTION • LACK OF TRUST • PERSONALITY CLASHES • INTERDEPENDENCE
FUNCTIONALITY VS DISFUNCTIONALITY high organisational Performance low high level of conflict
PROCESS OF CONFLICT Potential Opposition Cognition & Personalisation Behaviour Outcome
Levels of Conflict 1- INTRA INDIVIDUAL Barrier Need Drive Goal Defence Mechanism
1- INTRA INDIVIDUAL CONFLICT • GOAL CONFLICT (i) Approach –Approach (ii) Approach – Avoidance (iii) Avoidance – Avoidance (B) ROLE CONFLICT
2- Interpersonal Conflict 3- Intra Group Conflict 4- Inter Group conflict
Unitary and pluralistic frames of reference • Unitary • One set of values, beliefs, commitments • Shared understanding & commitment to objectives • One source of leadership • Team members - All pulling in the same direction • Potential for harmony is assumed provided leader communicates well • Disagreements è the result of misunderstanding • Dissidents – the "rabble" hypothesis
Unitary and pluralistic frames of reference • Pluralistic • Multiple values, beliefs, commitments and objectives • Diverse perceptions and understandings • Competing sources of leadership and loyalty • Individuals & members of separate groups • Pulling in different directions – all in same boat but…… • Potential for disagreement + conflict is inherent. • Natural distrust in management authority • Right to challenge decisions and share power • Representative participation > dissidents
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Techniques Facilitation:Third party gets disputants to deal directly and constructively with each other. Conciliation:Neutral third party acts as communication link between disputants. Peer review:Impartial co-workers hear both sides and render decision that may or may not be binding. Ombudsman:Respected and trusted member of the organization hears grievances confidentially. Mediation:Trained third-party guides disputants toward their own solution. Arbitration:Neutral third-party hears both sides in a court-like setting and renders a binding decision.
Bargaining • Distributive bargaining • Negotiations. Fixed sum is divided up. Win-lose • Integrative bargaining • Problem-solving negotiation - seek to increase the total cake. Create win- win situation both parties
Desired Outcomes of Conflict Agreement: Strive for equitable and fair agreements that last. Stronger relationships:Build bridges of goodwill and trust for the future. Learning:Greater self-awareness and creative problem solving.
Skills and Best Practices: How to Build Cross-Cultural Relationships Behavior Rank Be a good listener 1 Be sensitive to the needs of others 2 Be cooperative, rather than overly competitive 2 Advocate inclusive (participative) leadership 3 Compromise rather than dominate 4 Build rapport through conversations 5 Be compassionate and understanding 6 Avoid conflict by emphasizing harmony 7 Nurture others (develop and mentor) 8 Tie
Communication Processes to Cope with Diverse Conflict Styles • Communication Processes to Cope with Diverse Conflict Styles • Listening actively • Noticing nonverbal signals • Imagining with empathy: Empathy is the ability to “put oneself in other people's shoes.” • Choose words and manner carefully • Using "I-messages" • Respecting others: No ad-hominem arguments Ad-hominem (“against the person” in Latin)
Four steps for resolving conflict: Principled negotiation • (adapted from Fisher & Ury, Getting to YES, 1983). • It encourages people to express their needs in an ethical, calm manner. • Differentiate between the problem and the people involved • Focus on interests, not positions • Invent options for mutual gain • Apply objective criteria
Early signs of workplace conflict gossip avoidance resistance exclusion absenteeism mood change silences, or a drop in the amount of communication inappropriate communication negative body language continual complaining or arguments change in work and decision-making styles change in social patterns
Factors Influencing Conflict Orientation • Assertiveness: making one’s goals visible to others involved in the conflict • Cooperativeness: acknowledging the goals of others • Disclosure: the amount of information one is willing to share • Flexibility: the amount of movement one is able to make to resolve the conflict • Participation: the amount of activity required to engage in the conflict
There are always emotions involved in conflict and these build in intensity and complexity the longer a conflict remains unresolved. Fisher and Shapiro (2005)2 identify five "core concerns" that reflect people's emotional needs. They are: Appreciation Are my thoughts, feelings, and actions being devalued, or are they acknowledged as having merit? Autonomy Is my freedom to make decisions being impinged upon, or is it being respected? Affiliation Am I being treated as an adversary and kept at a distance, or am I being treated as a colleague? Status Am I being treated as inferior to others, or am I given full recognition where deserved? Role Are the many roles we play meaningless, or are they personally fulfilling?
Behavior Yes No Do I listen carefully without interrupting? Do I show concern and encourage the parties to resolve the conflict? Do I express empathy? Do I ask open-ended questions Have I acknowledged and validated each person's position/feelings? Have I allowed sufficient time for each person to have their say? Do I make sure i have heard the entire message before reacting? Have I summarized each party's position? Am I displaying impatience or defensiveness? Have I dismissed the importance of the issue? Am I judging the parties involved? Do I deny the feelings of those involved in the conflict? Do I argue or disagree with the feelings expressed by the parties involved? Have I tried to solve the problem too quickly? Have I assumed responsibility for fixing the problem rather than empowering those involved to generate their own solutions? Have I approached the concerns objectively by looking at the problem not the person? Do I show a genuine desire to understand the other person's point of view? If the conversation gets heated, do I reschedule another time to talk? Have I sought advice and assistance in dealing with the conflict?
When to seek additional assistance Nature of Conflict Yes No Does the conflict involve a clear breach of policy eg: allegations of unlawful discrimination, sexual harassment, bullying, racial or religious vilification or victimization, conflict of interest? Have I been unsuccessful in managing the conflict locally? Do I have the skills to manage the conflict locally? Is the conflict likely to escalate? Is the situation having a measureable and increasing impact on work performance, productivity and interpersonal relations in the workplace? Has there been an absence from work due to the conflict or could the conflict result in a Work Cover claim? Is the conflict highly complex and/or involve a group of people?
Models of conflict resolution Professional model The professional model recognizes the expertise of professionals and defers the resolution of disputes to those individuals specifically trained within the profession. Bureaucratic model Employees of state and federal agencies that manage these programs have significant involvement in the development of eligibility standards, the specification of allowable services and the determination of the allowable provision or limitations upon appropriate services Legal Model Developed by Neal and Kirp (1985, pp. 65-67) . The legal model focuses on the “individual as the bearer of rights...(who can) best safeguard their own interests” and “the use of legal concepts and courtlike procedures to enforce and protect rights.”