CONFLICT MANAGEMENT. What is conflict. A STATE OF COLLISION OR DISAGREEMENT WITHIN INDIVIDUAL BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS BETWEEN GROUPS. NATURE. IS INEVITABLE ARISES FROM MANY CAUSES CONTRIBUTES AND DETRACTS ORGANISATINAL PERFORMANCE. CAUSES/ SOURCES. ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE
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A STATE OF COLLISION OR DISAGREEMENT
level of conflict
1- INTRA INDIVIDUAL
(i) Approach –Approach
(ii) Approach – Avoidance
(iii) Avoidance – Avoidance
(B) ROLE CONFLICT
3- Intra Group Conflict
4- Inter Group conflict
Facilitation:Third party gets disputants to deal directly and constructively with each other.
Conciliation:Neutral third party acts as communication link between disputants.
Peer review:Impartial co-workers hear both sides and render decision that may or may not be binding.
Ombudsman:Respected and trusted member of the organization hears grievances confidentially.
Mediation:Trained third-party guides disputants toward their own solution.
Arbitration:Neutral third-party hears both sides in a court-like setting and renders a binding decision.
Agreement: Strive for equitable and fair agreements that last.
Stronger relationships:Build bridges of goodwill and trust for the future.
Learning:Greater self-awareness and creative problem solving.
Skills and Best Practices: How to Build Cross-Cultural Relationships
Be a good listener 1
Be sensitive to the needs of others 2
Be cooperative, rather than overly competitive 2
Advocate inclusive (participative) leadership 3
Compromise rather than dominate 4
Build rapport through conversations 5
Be compassionate and understanding 6
Avoid conflict by emphasizing harmony 7
Nurture others (develop and mentor) 8
silences, or a drop in the amount of communication
negative body language
continual complaining or arguments
change in work and decision-making styles
change in social patterns
• Assertiveness: making one’s goals visible to others involved
in the conflict
• Cooperativeness: acknowledging the goals of others
• Disclosure: the amount of information one is willing to share
• Flexibility: the amount of movement one is able to make to
resolve the conflict
• Participation: the amount of activity required to engage in the conflict
There are always emotions involved in conflict and these build in intensity and complexity the longer a conflict remains unresolved. Fisher and Shapiro (2005)2 identify five "core concerns" that reflect people's emotional needs. They are:
Appreciation Are my thoughts, feelings, and actions being devalued, or are they acknowledged as having merit?
Autonomy Is my freedom to make decisions being impinged upon, or is it being respected?
Affiliation Am I being treated as an adversary and kept at a distance, or am I being treated as a colleague?
Status Am I being treated as inferior to others, or am I given full recognition where deserved?
Role Are the many roles we play meaningless, or are they personally fulfilling?
Do I listen carefully without interrupting?
Do I show concern and encourage the parties to resolve the conflict?
Do I express empathy?
Do I ask open-ended questions
Have I acknowledged and validated each person's position/feelings?
Have I allowed sufficient time for each person to have their say?
Do I make sure i have heard the entire message before reacting?
Have I summarized each party's position?
Am I displaying impatience or defensiveness?
Have I dismissed the importance of the issue?
Am I judging the parties involved?
Do I deny the feelings of those involved in the conflict?
Do I argue or disagree with the feelings expressed by the parties involved?
Have I tried to solve the problem too quickly?
Have I assumed responsibility for fixing the problem rather than empowering those involved to generate their own solutions?
Have I approached the concerns objectively by looking at the problem not the person?
Do I show a genuine desire to understand the other person's point of view?
If the conversation gets heated, do I reschedule another time to talk?
Have I sought advice and assistance in dealing with the conflict?
Nature of Conflict Yes No
Does the conflict involve a clear breach of policy eg: allegations of unlawful discrimination, sexual harassment, bullying, racial or religious vilification or victimization, conflict of interest?
Have I been unsuccessful in managing the conflict locally?
Do I have the skills to manage the conflict locally?
Is the conflict likely to escalate?
Is the situation having a measureable and increasing impact on work performance, productivity and interpersonal relations in the workplace?
Has there been an absence from work due to the conflict or could the conflict result in a Work Cover claim?
Is the conflict highly complex and/or involve a group of people?
The professional model recognizes the expertise of professionals and defers the resolution of disputes to those individuals specifically trained within the profession.
Employees of state and federal agencies that manage these programs have significant involvement in the development of eligibility standards, the specification of allowable services and the determination of the allowable provision or limitations upon appropriate services
Developed by Neal and Kirp (1985, pp. 65-67) . The legal model focuses on the “individual as the bearer of rights...(who can) best safeguard their own interests” and “the use of legal concepts and courtlike procedures to enforce and protect rights.”