the male and female reproductive systems n.
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The Male and Female Reproductive Systems. Exercise 42 & 47 A&P 233. Male Reproductive system. Produces male games (sperm cells) in the seminiferous tubules in the testes Transports gametes to the female reproductive tract Secretes testosterone. Scrotum. The testes sit in the scrotum

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The Male and Female Reproductive Systems

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male reproductive system
Male Reproductive system

Produces male games (sperm cells) in the seminiferous tubules in the testes

Transports gametes to the female reproductive tract

Secretes testosterone

  • The testes sit in the scrotum
  • Sac of skin and superficial fascia that hangs outside the abdominopelvic cavity at the root of the penis
  • Contains paired testicles separated by a midline septum
  • Its external positioning keeps the testes 3C lower than core body temperature
wall of the scrotum
Wall of the Scrotum
  • In the dermis, there is a thin layer of smooth muscle known as the dartos muscle. Contractions of this muscle causes wrinkling of the skin.
  • The cremaster muscle is a thicker layer of skeletal muscle that lowers and raises the testes based on temperature.
inside the scrotum
Inside the Scrotum
  • A fibrous (tough connective tissue) capsule covers each testis called the tunicaalbuginea.
  • The tunica albuginea gives rise to septa (partitions) that divide the testis into lobules (about 250)
  • Each lobule contains 3 or 4 highly coiled seminiferous tubules
  • These converge to become rete testis which transport sperm to the epididymis
cells of the testis
Cells of the testis
  • Interstitial cells: produce testosterone
  • Spermatogonia: reproduce by mitosis to produce primary spermatocytes.
  • Sustentacular (Sertoli) cells: form blood testis barrier (BTB), supplies nutrients to developing sperm, protect. (Also called nurse cells)
  • Primary spermatocytes divide by meiosis to form secondary spermatocytes which are located closer to the lumen of the tubule.
  • The process of sperm formation from spermatogonia to sperm cells is called spermatogenesis
  • Sperm have three major regions
  • Head :contains DNA and has a helmet-like acrosome containing hydrolytic enzymes that allow the sperm to penetrate and enter the egg
  • Midpiece: contains mitochondria spiraled around the tail filaments
  • Tail :a typical flagellum produced by a centriole
  • Epididymis: Storage and maturation area for sperm
  • Its head joins the efferent ductules and caps the superior aspect of the testis
  • The duct of the epididymis has stereocilia that:
    • Absorb testicular fluid
    • Pass nutrients to the sperm
  • Nonmotile sperm enter, pass through its tubes and become motile (propelled by peristalsis)
  • Upon ejaculation the epididymis contracts, expelling sperm into the ductus deferens
spermatic cord
Spermatic Cord
  • Contains the structures running from the testicles to the pelvic cavity.
    • Passes through the inguinal canal
  • Contents:
    • Vas Deferens
    • Nerves
    • Blood Vessels
accessory glands seminal vesicles
Accessory Glands: Seminal Vesicles
  • Lie on the posterior wall of the bladder and secrete 60% of the volume of semen
    • Seminal fluid:
      • Fructose and other carbohydrates: provides energy for the sperm.
      • As well as some protein, citrate and prostaglandins
  • Join the ductus deferens enlarges to form ampulla.
  • Each ductus deferens joins with the seminal vesicles which forms the ejaculatory ducts
accessory glands prostate gland
Accessory Glands: Prostate Gland
  • Doughnut-shaped gland that encircles part of the urethra inferior to the bladder
  • Plays a role in the activation of sperm
  • Enters the prostatic urethra during ejaculation
  • Constitutes about 30% of semen.
  • Prostatic secretions function to:
    • Buffer the vaginal and seminal acidity, raising the pH to about 7.5 and activating the sperm (pH of the vagina is about 3.5 – 4.0)
bulbourethral glands cowper s glands
Bulbourethral Glands (Cowper’s Glands)
  • Pea-sized glands inferior to the prostate
  • Add lubricant to the seminal fluid
  • Seminal fluid consists of secretions from the seminal vesicles, prostate gland and bulbourethral glands.
  • Semen consists of seminal fluid plus the sperm cells from the testes.
sperm summary
Sperm Summary
  • Produced: Seminiferous tubules
  • Stored: Epididymis
  • Transported through epididymis by rhythmic peristaltic contractions as they mature
  • EpididymisVas DeferensEjaculatory duct (ampulla of vas deferens fuses with duct of seminal vesicle “ejaculatory duct”)  prostate prostatic urethra (then passes the bulbourethral gland) membranous urethrapenile urethra
review questions
Review questions
  • What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis?
  • What are the results of meiosis?
  • Spermatogenic stem cells of the seminiferous tubules give rise to sperm in a series of events
    • Mitosis of spermatogonia, forming spermatocytes
    • Meiosis forms spermatids from spermatocytes
    • Spermiogenesis: spermatids form sperm
  • Male sterilization
  • Cutting and tying of the two ductus deferens.
  • Prevents sperm from traveling from the testes to the spermatic cords
  • Sperm is reabsorbed by the body
female reproduction
Female Reproduction
  • Unlike males, who are able to produce sperm cells throughout their reproductive lives, females produce a finite number of egg cells.
  • During early fetal development germ cells migrate into the ovaries and differentiate into oogonia
gross anatomy
Gross Anatomy
  • The ovaries are solid, ovoid structures, about 2 cm in length and 1 cm in width.
  • Like the testes, they develop from embryonic tissue along the posterior abdominal wall, near the kidneys.
  • Accessory organs include the uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina.
  • Each follicle consists of an immature egg called an oocyte
  • Cells around the oocyte are called:
    • Follicle cells (one cell layer thick)
      • Stimulated to mature by FSH from the pituitary gland
    • Granulosa cells (when more than one layer is present)
    • Thecal cells: Cells in the ovarian stroma
  • Thecal & granulosa cells work together to produce estrogen
  • A protective layer of glycoprotein forms around the egg called the zona pellucida

Primary Follicle

1° Oocyte(arrested in prophase I)


Zona pellucida

Thecal cells

Granulosa cells

secondary follicle
Secondary Follicle

Fluid-filled antrum

graafian follicle
Graafian Follicle

Fluid filled antrum

Oocyte 2°

Granulosa cells


Corona radiata

Zona pellucida

follicle development
Follicle Development
  • Primordial follicle: one layer of squamous-like follicle cells surrounds the oocyte
  • Primary follicle: one or more layers of cuboidalgranulosa cells enclose the oocyte
  • Secondary follicle: has a fluid-filled space between granulosa cells that coalesces to form a central antrum
  • Graafian follicle: secondary follicle at its most mature stage that bulges from the surface of the ovary
  • Corpus luteum : ruptured follicle after ovulation
corpus luteum
Corpus luteum
  • After ovulation, the remains of the follicle are transformed into a structure called the corpus luteum.
  • If a pregnancy occurs, it produces progesterone to maintain the wall of the uterus during the early period of development.
corpus albicans
Corpus albicans
  • If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum will begin to break down about 2 weeks after ovulation.
  • Degeneration occurs when fibroblasts enter the corpus luteum and a clump of scar tissue forms called the corpus albicans.
uterine tubes fallopian tubes
Uterine Tubes (Fallopian Tubes)
  • Receive the ovulated oocyte and provide a site for fertilization
  • The ampulla ends in the funnel-shaped, ciliated infundibulum containing fingerlike projections called fimbriae
  • Expand distally around the ovary forming the ampulla
  • Empty into the superolateral region of the uterus via the isthmus
uterine tubes fallopian tubes1
Uterine Tubes (Fallopian Tubes)
  • Fimbriae sweep oocyte into tube, cilia & peristalsis move it along, sperm reaches oocyte in ampulla, fertilization occurs within 24 hours after ovulation & zygote reaches uterus about 7 days after ovulation
fallopian tube histology
Fallopian Tube Histology

Cilia sweep egg/zygote toward the uterus

  • Hollow, thick-walled organ located in the pelvis anterior to the rectum and posterosuperior to the bladder
  • Body: Major portion of the uterus
  • Fundus: Rounded region superior to the entrance of the uterine tubes
  • Isthmus: Narrowed region between the body and cervix
uterine histology
Uterine Histology
  • Endometrium
    • Simple columnar epithelium
    • Stroma of connective tissue and endometrial glands
      • Stratum functionalis: Shed during menstruation
      • Stratum basalis: Replaces stratum functionalis each month
  • Myometrium
    • 3 layers of smooth muscle
  • Perimetrium
    • Visceral peritoneum

Simple columnar epithelium

Endometrial glands

  • Proliferative phase: glands and blood vessels scattered throughout the functional zone with little or no branching.
  • New glands form and endometrium thickens.
  • Secretory phase: glands are enlarged and have branches. Preparing the endometrium for implantation
  • If no implantation then endometrium breaks down and menstruation begins.
  • Narrow lower neck of the uterus which projects into the vagina inferiorly
  • Cervical canal – cavity of the cervix that communicates with:
    • The vagina via the external os
    • The uterine body via the internal os
  • Cervical glands secrete mucus that covers the external os and blocks sperm entry except during midcycle
  • Thin-walled tube lying between the bladder and the rectum, extending from the cervix to the exterior of the body
  • Wall consists of three coats: fibroelastic adventitia, smooth muscle muscularis, and a stratified squamous mucosa
  • Mucosa near the vaginal orifice forms an incomplete partition called the hymen
  • Vaginal fornix: upper end of the vagina surrounding the cervix
female external genitalia
Female External Genitalia
  • Vulva: all external female genital structures
  • Mons pubis: fatty pad over the pubic symphysis
  • Labia majora & minora: folds of skin encircling vestibule where find urethral and vaginal openings
  • Clitoris: small mass of erectile tissue
  • Bulb of vestibule: masses of erectile tissue just deep to the labia on either side of the vaginal orifice
  • Perineum: Area between the vagina and anus
bartholin s glands aka vestibular glands
Bartholin’s Glands (aka: Vestibular Glands)
  • The Bartholin's glands are located on each side of the vaginal opening.
  • They secrete fluid that helps lubricate the vagina.
  • Sometimes the ducts of these glands become obstructed.
    • Fluid backs up into the gland and causes swelling (Bartholin's cyst)
mammary glands
Mammary Glands
  • Modified sweat glands that produce milk (lactation)
    • Amount of adipose determines size of breast
    • Milk-secreting glands open by lactiferous ducts at the nipple
    • Areola is pigmented area around nipple
    • Suspensory ligaments suspend breast from deep fascia of pectoral muscles (aging & Cooper’s droop)
    • Mammary line is a thickened ridge of embryonic tissue that extends from the axilla to the groin.
  • Prolactin from the pituitary gland stimulates the synthesis of milk
  • Oxytocin from the posterior pituitary gland stimulates milk ejection
lymphatic drainage
Lymphatic Drainage
  • Lymph nodes draining the breast are located in the axilla.
today s lab
Today’s lab
  • ID structures on the models
  • View slides