CLEAN FUEL AND VEHICLES in South Eastern Europe and Turkey 25-26 October, 2005 Szentendre, Hungary
CLEAN FUEL AND VEHICLES SITUATION IN ROMANIA • For ROMANIA some progress can be reported, in particular the adoption of implementing legislation on: • sulphur content of liquid fuels ; • designation of inspection bodies ; • volatile organic compound emissions ; • conditions for placing gasoline and diesel fuels on the market.
ROMANIAN LEGISLATION ON FUEL QUALITY • Council Directive No 93/12/EEC relating to the sulphur content of certain liquid fuels, amended by Directive No 99/32/EC. • The Directive was transposed by GD 142/2003 on the reduction of the sulfur content of liquid fuels and GD 598/2004 which modifies and completes GD 142/2003. • 2.Council Directive no 2003/17/CE which amends Council Directive no 98/70/EC relating to the quality of petrol and diesel fuels. • The Directive was transposed by the GD 732/2001 on establishing the requirements for placing on the market petrol and diesel fuel, at the initiative of the Ministry of Industry and Resources amended by GD 897/2003 and by GD 689/2004 on establishing the requirements for placing on the market petrol and diesel fuel.
3. Council Directive No 99/30/EC relating to limit values for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and lead in ambient air. • The Directive was transposed by the following legal acts: • GD 586/2004 for the setting up and organization of the National System for Assessment and Integrated Management of the Air Quality; • GD 543/2004 for setting up the procedure for the elaboration and implementation of air quality management plans and programmes; • GD 738/2004 for the adoption of the National Action Plan on Atmosphere Protection; • GD 731/2004 for the adoption of the National Strategy on Atmosphere Protection.
What is air pollution? • contamination of the air by noxious gases and minute particles of solid and liquid matter (particulates) in concentrations that endanger health; • air pollution only occurs outdoors.
CLASSICAL AIR POLLUTANTS • Nitrogen dioxide; • Ozone and other photochemical oxidants; • Particulate matter; • Sulphur dioxide.
Sources of Outside Air Pollution • Combustion of gasoline and other hydrocarbon fuels in cars, trucks, and airplanes; • Burning of fossil fuels (oil, coal, and dinosaur bones); • Insecticides; • Herbicides; • Everyday radioactive fallouts; • Dust from fertilizers; • Mining operations; • Livestock feedlots.
Urban Emissions There are small emissions of NOx from industrial processes. The main emissions are from combustion. There is negligible nitrogen in gasoline or diesel fuels so the nitrogen oxides arise from the N2 and O2 in the air. Sulphur dioxides arise from the sulphur present in most fuels. Particulate matter describes matter below 10μm aerodynamic diameter.
Role of Engines and Fuel Different engines and fuel combinations give out different emissions in different quantities. Some engines have catalysts which effectively remove part of the harmful gases.
Catalytic Converters and Particle Traps • Catalytic converters can be fitted to cars to reduce NOx emissions. • CO + HC + NOx H2O + N2 + CO2 • Platinum Honeycomb • Particle traps can be used to reduce PM10 and NOx, but the effectiveness is severely reduced if the fuel the vehicle burns has a high sulphur content. • The major target in the battle for cleaner cities is diesel.
Effects on the environment • Acid rain; • Ozone depletion; • Global warming; • In human population - respiratory problems, allergies and a risk for cancer.
Acid rain • contains high levels of sulphuric or nitric acids; • contaminate drinking water and vegetation; • damage aquatic life; • erode buildings; • alters the chemical equilibrium of some soils.
Nitrogen monoxide and dioxide annual emissions in Romania • The emissions of NOx were practically in continuous decrease between 1995-2001, from about 407 thousand tons in 1995 to about 336 thousand tons in 2001. In 2002 the NOx emissions recorded a light increase compared to 2001, the value resulted being of 357 thousand tons (the emissions were calculated by using as entrance data the ones provided by the National Statistics Institute); • The main source was represented by the electric power industry’s consumption and the transformation industries (~35%), and the road traffic (25%).
Annual sulphur dioxide emissions (SO2) in Romania • The SO2 emissionswere practically permanently decreasing during 1995-2001, from about 1,085 thousand tons in 1995 to about 839.6 thousand tons in 2001. • In 2002 the SO2 emissions recorded a decrease, their value being of 780.8 thousand tons (emissions calculated according to the data supplied by the National Statistical Institute). • The main SO2 pollution sources have been (about~72%) represented by power combustions and conversion industries. • The SO2 emission decreases were due mainly to the reducing of sulphur content of the fuels used during the activities that generate thermal and electric power.
Health state of the population highly exposed to the lead generated by the road traffic in Bucharest • Considering the necessity of reducing the lead concentration from the gasoline composition and introducing the utilization of non-lead gasoline in the near future, The Institute of Public Health-Bucharest has elaborated a project with the main objective of protecting the population against the air pollution and the identification of population groups more sensitive to the risk factor. • The results were based on the scientific documentation of the impact on the population’s health condition from the urban settlements caused by the chronic exposure to this pollutant element produced by the road traffic. • Significant aspects for Bucharest city: • the effects of irritating air pollutants; • the effects of the lead concentration in air. • Both pollutant groups have the road traffic, as a main pollutant source, and at a less extent, the central and industrial heating systems (in the last years, mostly).
The following aspects were assessed: • lead concentration from the body; • somatically development level; • blood pressure; • neuropsychic development tests. • Lead concentration, at the age group with high risk, was in 57% from the cases, over the value of 10µ/dl, recommended by CDC USA (Center for Disease Control), as a safety threshold, fact which shows an increased exposure of the infant population at this toxic-systemic (both in case of Bucharest city and in the other big cities). • Taking into consideration the chronic effects of irritating air pollutants, these must be seen resulting from a long term exposure (5-10 years) at relatively increased concentrations.
Strategies • Development of new technology-electric cars, cleaner fuels, low nitrogen oxide boilers and water healers, zero polluting paints; • Use of natural gas; • Carpooling; • Follow the laws enacted.
MEASURES TO REDUCE THE IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT • Reduction of SO2 and NOx emissions by using fuels with low levels of sulphur and bycontrolling the combustion process; • Reduction of particle emissions by improving the retention rate of the electrostatic filters; • Equipping electric power plants with monitoring and filtration equipment and machinery forthe removal of sulphur compounds.
Alternative Fuelled Vehicles Alternative Fuelled Vehicles are vehicles that operate on alternative fuels, such as methanol, ethanol, compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, electricity and others. Some AFVs can run on conventional fuels, such as gasoline, and alternative fuels. They are called dual-fuelled vehicles. Driving alternative fuelled vehicles could reduce the level of vehicle emissions and choosing domestically produced alternative fuels - instead of imported oil - could help reduce the trade deficit, create jobs and promote economic activity. Some alternative fuels have a lower energy content than gasoline.
ALTERNATIVE FUELS • Reformulated - cleaner - gasoline and alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol, compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas and electricity produce fewer tail pipe pollutants than conventional gasoline and diesel fuel. • Using them could improve our air quality. • Today there are produced in EU about 1.4 millions tone bio-diesel and 0.4 millions tone bioethanol. The market has a continuous growth.
METHANOL is an odorless, clear liquid produced from natural gas, coal, or biomass resources, such as crop and forest residues. ETHANOL is a liquid produced from grain or agricultural waste. REFORMULATED GASOLINE is conventional gasoline with added oxygen. It burns more cleanly than conventional gasoline. It is required in areas with the most serious levels of ozone air pollution and is being used by choice in others. LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS is a mixture of propane (C3H8) and butane (C3H10), which occurs naturally in gas fields, where it is flared off during natural gas extraction, and is also produced during the oil refining process. It is derived from the two sources in approximately equal quantities.
The EUROPEAN COMMISSION adopted a Directive (2003/30/EC) on the promotion of the use of bio-fuels or other renewable fuels for transport that sets national indicative targets for the use of bio-fuels in the road transport sector. Specifically, the indicative targets are: • 2% of fuels consumed in transport (energy content) should be from bio-fuels by 2005; • 0.75% per year increase in the use of bio-fuels in transport; • 5.75% in 2010. • Romania should transpose this Directive within the negotiation Chapter no.14 Energy. • For fuels produced from biomass, various conversion routes are available that follow from the different types of biomass feed-stocks. • Producing bio-fuels may be a real opportunity for Romania and an alternative to the agriculture restructuring and use of abandoned land.