TODAY • Religion • Catholic tradition • Others • Inter-Personal socio-cultural traits • Industrial history & geography
LAST TIME- Questions? • Social Geographies • Social development indicators • Race and ethnicity • Spatial distributions • Race and society in LA
Catholic Heritage I • Spanish Catholic roots • Spiritual conquest — an integral part of the conquest of the Americas • Legacy of Church’s history in Latin America • Identified with power/economic elite • Reform in form of liberation theology => oppression of the poor is a sin
Catholic Heritage II • Overwhelmingly people say “soy Catholico” = “I am a Catholic” • Church attendance is often low • But presence is everywhere • “Folk” Catholicism — merging of Roman Catholic ritual and beliefs with indigenous (Amerindian) beliefs (syncretism) • Roman Catholic beliefs have merged with (or been used to mask) various African religious traditions in the Caribbean and Brazil especially
Obatala known as the parent of the Orishas and all human kind. The saint he represents is "Our lady of Mercy“ © 2005-2006 www.santeriareligion101.com
Lukumi (Santería) Altar ©2000 Latitude International Products
Religion: Non-Catholic • Hindu and Islam — imported with indentured labor to Suriname, Guiana, Trinidad & Tobago mostly (but minorities in all of the Caribbean) • Judaism — accompanied 1st migrants from Spain (conversos) • Evangelical Protestants — Protestants outlawed in Spanish/Portuguese colonial times • Very rapid growth in past few decades • ~40% of Guatemala • ~1/3 of Brazil
The Mosque of Omar Ibn Al-Khattab in La Guajira, Colombia. It is the second biggest mosque in Latin America.
Inter-Personal socio-cultural traits • Machismo — men in control of their lives and the lives of others in their lives • Marianismo — roughly the inverse of machismo (from the idea that the ideal woman resembles Mary in her virtue and purity) • Role conflict (e.g., casas chicas) • “Personalismo” — much of social, economic, indeed all life in LA depends on social/family ties & personal spheres of influence and obligation
Industrialization in the late 19th Century — up through WWII • Export Processing Industrialization (a follow on from colonial patterns) • Low technology manufacture of basic consumer goods • Era of WW I; Great Depression; through WW II
Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI) (1940s — 1970s) • Legitimized by Argentine economist Raul Prebish in 1940 and adopted as official policy by the UN after WWII
How ISI works • Imposed quotas or tariffs to increase the price of imported manufactured goods • Idea is to stimulate local industries • NOT a new idea
Consequences of previous rounds of industrialization • A legacy of: Colonial; 19th C; and especially ISI industrialization • Spatially uneven: largest states benefit most • Smaller states forced to band together
Economic & other assumptions of ISI • Presumes that “under development” is partly the result of uneven terms of trade between LA and the more developed Atlantic world • Isolating the country’s economy from the wider world’s economy will allow it to develop without the pressures from the Atlantic World • Attempt to recreate a mini-model of the economy of more developed states • Strongly involve the state in economic activities via state enterprises etc.
Problems with ISI • Role of modern technology in ISI • Role of changed imports in ISI • Role of foreign control in ISI • Role of role of governments in ISI • Inefficient management due to lack of competition • Loans to do all this not easily repaid => demands to “restructure” economy”