Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive DevelopmentIn Children Presentation By: Miriam Anderson Peggy Belgrave Penny Lane Richard Michalek
Piaget’s Background • Born: August 9, 1896 • Died: Sept. 16, 1980 • Birth Place: • Neuchatel, Switzerland • Education: • Received PhD from University of Neuchatel • Married in 1923 to Valentine Chatenay and bore 3 children • (Piaget, 1952)
Piaget was interested in the study of knowledge in children. He administered Binet’s IQ test in Paris and observed that children’s answers were qualitatively different. Piaget’s theory is based on the idea that the developing child builds cognitive structures (schemes used to understand and respond to physical environment). He believed the child’s cognitive structure increased with development (Brainerd,1978). The Beginning
Epistemology is the study of knowledge Genetic is development Definition of Genetic Epistemology Study of developmental changes in the process of knowing and in the organization of knowledge. Piaget wanted to know how children learned through their development in the study of knowledge. He was considered a structuralist Structuralism: the relationship between the parts and the whole (Brainerd,1978; Piaget, 1952). Genetic Epistemology
Methodology • Clinical • Interviews • Interaction with the child • Behavioral Observations • Watched kids in their natural environment. • Put down what represented his idea, he was biased (Brainerd, 1978).
Characteristics of Piaget’s Stages • Each stage is a structured whole and in a state of equilibrium • The stages are qualitative within the structures and quantitative between structures • Each stage derives from the previous stage and incorporate and transform to prepare for the next • No going back
Characteristics Continued 3. The stages follow an invariant sequence. • There is no skipping stages. 4. The stages are universal. • Culture does not impact the stages. Children everywhere go through the same stages no matter what their cultural background is.
Characteristics Continued • Each stage is a coming into being. • There is a gradual progression from stage to stage (Brainerd, 1978).
Stages of Development • Piaget’s theory identifies four developmental stages and the processes by which children progress through them. • The four stages are: 1. Sensorimotor Stage (birth to 24 months) 2. Preoperational Stage (2-7 years old) 3. Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years old) 4. Formal Operational Stage (11-15 years old) (Brainerd, 1978).
Sensorimotor Stage • In this period, intelligence is demonstrated through motor activity without the use of symbols. • Knowledge of the world is limited (but developing) because it is based on physical interactions and experiences. • Some symbolic abilities are developed at the end of this stage.
Modification of reflexes (0-1months) Strengthens and differentiates reflexes Primary Circular Reaction (1-4 months) Circular pattern of having a stimulus and responding Focus is on own body 3. Secondary Circular Reaction (4-8 months) Focus is on the outside world 4. Coordination of Secondary Schema (8-12 months) Goal oriented behavior Apply ability to other things 6 Stages of Sensorimotor Stage
6 Stages Continued 5. Tertiary Circular Reaction (12-18 months) • Active potential • Explore object’s potential 6. Invention of New Means through Mental Combinations (18-24 months) • Child moves from overt to covert thoughts • The child can use mental representation instead of physical objects (Piaget, 1952; Brainerd, 1978).
Preoperational Stage(2-7 years old) • In this period, intelligence is demonstrated through the use of symbols. • Language use matures. • Memory and imagination are developed. • Thinking is done in a non-logically nonreversible manner • Ego centric thinking predominates
Semiotic Function Language develops Uses symbols to represent ideas Verbal and written language develops Egocentrism It is all about them They can not differentiate between themselves and the world Rigidity of Thought Centration: focus on one aspect of an object Semi-logical Reasoning They get the general idea Limited social cognition Pre-Operational Stage Continued
Preoperational Stage Continued • Morality of Constraint • No bending of the rules • Morality of Co-Operation • They bend the rules a little bit
Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years) • Operation: internalized action part of organized structure. • Mentally carried out actions • Intelligence is demonstrated through logical and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects. • Egocentric thought diminishes. • Operational thinking develops.
Piaget’s Water Conservation Task Consist of two beakers of different sizes, one with water Demonstrates the following: Reversibility-pour water in beaker of different size and realize that it is still the same amount. Compensation- even though one beaker is taller than the other, water is higher because the glass is thinner Addition and subtraction Starts out with liquid, then mass, then space Concrete Operational Stage Cont’d
Formal Operational Stage (11-15 years old) • Intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts. • There could be a return to egocentric thought early in the period. • Many people do not think formally during adulthood. • Many people do not make it to this stage.
Formal Operations Continued • Children formulate hypothesis by taking concrete operations and generate hypothesis about logical relations • Pendulum Swing • The process is more important than the solution (Piaget, 1952; Brainerd, 1978).
Cognitive Equilibrium • Balance between organization and adaptation • Always organized can lead to little or no growth • Always adapting can lead to little or no knowledge (Piaget, 1952; Brainerd, 1978).
Cognitive Adaptation • Allows the child to erect more and more cognitive structures through either • Assimilation: fit reality into current cognitive organization • Accommodation: adjust cognitive organization to fit reality (Piaget, 1952; Brainerd, 1978).
How Piaget’s Theory Impacts Learning • Curriculum: Educators must plan a developmentally appropriate curriculum that enhances their student’s logical and conceptual growth. • Instruction: Teachers must emphasize the critical role that experiences, or interactions with the surrounding environment play in student learning (Bybee & Sund, 1982).
References • Brainerd, C. (1978). Piaget’s theory of intelligence. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. • Bybee, R. & Sund, R. (1982). Piaget for educators (2nd Ed.). Columbus, OH: Charles Merrill. • Piaget, J. (1952). Autobiography. In E. Boring (ed) history of psychology in autobiography (4). Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.