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Models & Theories of Health Promotion in Multicultural Populations. Dr. Jim Frankish Senior Scholar, Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research. Partners in Community Heath Research-Training Program. Current & Recent Projects. Research Training Program in Community Partnership Research

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Models & Theories of Health Promotion in Multicultural Populations

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models theories of health promotion in multicultural populations

Models & Theories of Health Promotion in Multicultural Populations

Dr. Jim Frankish

Senior Scholar, Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research

Partners in Community Heath

Research-Training Program

current recent projects
Current & Recent Projects
  • Research Training Program in Community Partnership Research
  • BC Homelessness & Health Research Network Project
  • Evaluation of Homeless Individuals & Families Information System
  • Service Utilization for Homeless Persons with Mental Illness
  • Social Construction of Homelessness - Whose Fault? What Solutions?
  • Measurement of Health Literacy
  • Health Promotion in Primary Care Project
  • "Health 101" Course
  • Report Card on Impacts of 2010 Games on Health & Quality of Life
  • Measuring Community Capacity & Measures of Community Health
  • Evaluation of the "Cooking Fun for Families" Program
  • Health Regions and Non‑Medical Determinants of Health
  • Adolescents’ Concept of Depression and Help-Seeking
  • Ethics Guidelines for Community-Based Research
  • National Health Literacy Survey
  • Evaluation of National Literacy and Health Program
  • QUEST - Georgia Basins Future Project
  • Mid‑Life Health Interventions for Healthy Aging
current student projects
Current Student Projects
  • Primary health care reform and disadvantaged populations
  • Health education in women with Aids in Latin America
  • Mental health promotion and early psychosis
  • Multicultural nutritional health literacy
  • Criteria for health resource allocations to "special interest" groups
  • Pediatric HIV education
  • Adolescent depression
  • Early child development and health
  • IV drug use and street kids
  • Living well with chronic illness
  • Poverty and nutrition in inner-city schools
  • Child injury prevention in low-income parents
  • Social capital and health in resource communities
  • Poverty and nutrition - cultural variations
source publication
Source Publication
  • 2007. Frankish J, Lovato C, Poureslami, I. Models, Theories and Principles of Health Promotion in Multicultural Populations in R. Huff & M. Kline, Editors, Promoting Health in Multicultural Populations, Second Edition, Sage.
"By telling us about the what, how, when, and why, theories can inform programs in health education....The what tells us the elements we should consider as the targets for the intervention....The why tells us about the processes by which changes occur in the target variables. The when tells us about the timing and sequencing of our interventions in order to achieve maximum effects. The how tells us the methods or ways we should focus our interventions; it includes the specific means of inducing changes in the explanatory variables (Glanz, Lewis & Rimer, 1990).
basic approach
Basic Approach
  • Rationale for Using a Theoretical Framework
  • Distinguishing Theories, Models and Frameworks
  • Values and Theories
introduction to theory
Introduction to Theory
  • Positivism:
    • The “scientific method”
    • Quantitative – data driven
    • Top down
    • Scientific reductionism
    • Quest for causes and universal laws
  • Post-positivism or Humanism
    • Holistic, interdependencies complexity of systems and interactions between systems
    • Qualitative, constructivist
    • Quest is for understanding
more comparisons of positivism humanism or post positivist

Considers aggregate data, large-scale projects

Preserves status quo

Top down

Minimizes importance of dynamic determinants

Theories built up by reproducing studies, facts and truth


AIDS/HIV in New York spread along commuter lines

Spatial patterning of diseases


Recognizes importance of individual experience

Gives rise to individual level studies

Doesn’t strip context

Considers issues of participation, equity, community, justice

“Sonnets no matter how eloquent do not stop viruses, do not help us look ahead”

Emphasizes individuality and subjectivity

Theories are built up through learning


Anthropological and ethnographic studies: men living with HIV, women living with MS

More comparisons of positivism/ humanism or post-positivist
a lexicon for health promotion
A Lexicon for Health Promotion
  • Concepts: the 'idea' of community capacity
  • Constructs: the operational definition or characteristics of community capacity
  • Theories/Models: Hypothesized relations between important constructs
  • Measures/Indicators: Data on important constructs
  • Strategies: Means of acting to change important relations between constructs in the model or theory
  • Standards: definitions of success for each aspect of community capacity

(Source: Adapted from materials from University of South Florida, Community & Family Health, 1999)

four prevalent models for health education
Four Prevalent Models for Health Education
  • Social Learning Theory (Reference Group‑BasedSocial Influence Theory)
  • Health Belief Model
  • Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior
  • Transtheoretical (Stages of Change) Model
more ecological models
More Ecological Models
  • Precede-Proceed
  • Social Ecology
  • PEN-3 Model
  • Community Participation
additional models
Additional Models
  • Aids Risk Reduction Model
  • Coping Theory
  • Cognitive‑Behavioral Theory
  • Communication Theory
  • Diffusion of Innovation
  • Expectancy‑Value Theory
  • Information-Motivation Model
  • Learned Helplessness Theory
  • Precaution Adoption Model
  • Social Marketing Theory
  • Social Support Theory
contact information
Contact Information
  • Dr. Jim Frankish, Senior Scholar, Michael Smith FoundationInstitute of Health Promotion ResearchRm 425, Library Processing Centre2206 East Mall Vancouver BC V6T 1Z3604-822-9205, 822-9210, frankish@interchange.ubc.caPersonal Website: jimfrankish.comBC Homelessness & Health Research – Network bchhrn.ihpr.ubc.caBC Homelessness Virtual Library - www.hvl.ihpr.ubc.caPartners in Community Health Research