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  1. Impressionism The late 19th century

  2. RenoirA Girl with a Watering-Can. 1876

  3. Outline • Introduction • Part I. Definition • Part II. Location • Part III. The painters • Conclusion • References

  4. Introduction • Many of the practices of the impressionists had precedents in earlier French painting of the 19th century • Most of the impressionists followed the tendencies of earlier French realists such as Gustave Courbet • They emulated French painter Camille Corot in his sensitivity to the effects of light in nature • They also learned from French landscape painters of the Barbizon School and admired the vibrant color and lively brushstrokes of EugèneDelacroix • The impressionists specialized in landscape, informal portraits in a domestic setting, and still life

  5. Edouard Manet. The Picnic 1862-1863

  6. Part I. Definition • Movement in painting that originated in France in the late 19th century radical because braking many of the rules of picture-making set by earlier generations • The impressionists tried to depict what they saw at a given moment, capturing a fresh, original vision that was hard for some people to accept as beautiful • Impressionist painters used broken brushstrokes of bright, often unmixed colors and simplified their compositions, omitting detail to achieve a striking overall effect • In 1874 French art critic Louis Leroy coined the term impressionist in a satirical review of a private exhibition of paintings, because of Impression, Sunrise (1873, Musée Marmottan, Paris) by Monet

  7. Impression, Sunrise

  8. Part II. Location • In Paris (Opera Garnier for Degas, la Seine for Seurat and Monet, a train station for Monet) • In 1890, Monet purchased a house in Giverny that he had been renting for seven years. He began to develop its gardens, introducing an ornamental lily pond and a Japanese-style bridge. These and other features of his idyllic estate were the subject of a steady output of large decorative paintings • Cézanne in Aix-en-Provence, Van Gogh and Gauguin in Arles in 1888

  9. Giverny • From 1890 until his death in 1926, Claude Monet lived and painted in the small village of Giverny, near Paris • Monet planted extensive gardens at Giverny, including the water garden pictured here • Water lilies filled the pond and were the frequent subject of the artist’s paintings • Monet’s house, now known as the Foundation Claude Monet, has been restored and is decorated in the original color schemes selected by Monet • The house and gardens are open to the public during the spring and summer months

  10. The Bark at Giverny, 1887, Musée d'Orsay, Paris

  11. Part III. The painters • Impressionism refers principally to the work of Monet, Renoir, Camille Pissarro, Alfred SisleyManet and Degas • Impressionism also refers to the work of artists who participated in a series of group exhibitions in Paris, the first and most famous of which was held from April 15 to May 15, 1874, at the studio of the photographer Nadar • By the 1880s a number of artists had begun to react against various aspects of impressionism • Painters Seurat and Gauguin protested the movement’s exclusive concentration on subjects they saw as ordinary • The next generation of innovators, so-called postimpressionists, is best represented by Cézanne and Van Gogh

  12. Edgar Degas (1834-1917) • Born into the family of bankers of aristocratic extraction • In 1854-1859 he made several trips to Italy, some of the time visiting relatives, studying the Old Masters • By 1860 Degas had drawn over 700 copies of other works, mainly early Italian Renaissance and French classical art • In 1874 Degas helped organize the 1st Impressionist exhibition and participate in all the group exhibitions except that of 1882 • Most of his works depict racecourses, theaters, cafés, music halls, or boudoirs. Degas was a keen observer of humanity—particularly of women • Famous paintings: Race Horses (c.1866-68), Carriage at the Races (1869), Dance Class(1871), The Star (1876-77)

  13. Edgar Degas. Ballet Rehearsal on the Set. 1874

  14. Conclusion • In 1991, two of Russia's major museums, the Hermitage in St. Petersburg and the Pushkin in Moscow, revealed they had secretly stored a group of impressionist paintings (part of a vast collection looted from Germany by the USSR in the final months of World War II) • Most of the paintings had come from private collections (some had previously been looted by the Nazis) and had not been seen in public for many decades • Both museums exhibited many of these works, including paintings by Degas, Renoir, Gauguin, and Monet, in 1995

  15. References • • • • • •