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Gendering Urban Development. Darshini Mahadevia School of Planning CEPT University, Ahmedabad d_mahadevia@yahoo.com. Urban Development Status - 1. 285 million or 27.75% of India’s population living in urban areas in 2001. In 2005, 28.3% or 306 million population living in urban areas.

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gendering urban development

Gendering Urban Development

Darshini Mahadevia

School of Planning

CEPT University, Ahmedabad

d_mahadevia@yahoo.com

urban development status 1
Urban Development Status - 1
  • 285 million or 27.75% of India’s population living in urban areas in 2001. In 2005, 28.3% or 306 million population living in urban areas.
  • In 2001, there were 5,161 urban centres in India, of which 37 were metropolitan cities
  • Of the total urban population, 47.37% are females. Urban sex ratio is therefore 900, when overall sex ratio is 933 in India in 2001.
  • In 27 million plus cities in India, where 26% of urban population lives, the overall sex ratio is only 861. This indicates that there is a strong male selectivity in migration to large cities as compared to other urban areas.

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urban development status 2
Urban Development Status - 2
  • The juvenile sex ratio in urban areas is 905, when the overall juvenile sex ratio in India is 927. There is thus higher sex selective abortions in urban areas as compared to rural areas.
  • There are 67.01 million poor in urban areas (23.62%), in 1999-00, as per the official figures.
  • Urban poverty is largely concentrated in the small and medium towns. In 2000, just 15% of the population in million plus cities was below poverty line, whereas in small towns it was 33% and medium sized towns and cities it was 23%. (Mahadevia & Sarkar 2004)
  • Sex ratios in large cities are low, and here poverty is low. Small and medium towns would therefore have relatively higher sex ratios and where poverty is high. Thus, more females suffer from consequneces of urban poverty than males

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unfinished urban agenda important gender concerns
Unfinished urban agenda - important gender concerns

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unfinished agenda 2
Unfinished agenda - 2
  • Lack of services is more a phenomenon of small and medium towns than of metropolitan cities.
  • 26% of urban population lives in small towns below population 50,000 and another 24% live in medium sized towns with population between 50,000 and 200,000. (Mahadevia & sarkar 2004)
  • Within the urban sector, attention to urban centres below 200,000 population is essential, where sex ratios are higher than metros, to reach to women.

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urban financing
Urban financing
  • Urban development is a state subject
  • There are a few centrally supported urban programmes. But, by and large urban development is funded through the efforts of state government.
  • State government delegates some functions to the city governments. In some states, all functions are delegated to the city governments, such as Maharashtra and Gujarat and in some states only some functions are delegated. For example, Karnataka, AP, TN, water supply and sanitation, urban transport are not delegated to the city governments.
  • We need to look at budgets of each of the urban centres.
  • In most states, there are state government supported parastatals are there to finance the urban function which is their mandate and hence, the expenditure pattern and cost recovery mechanisms need to be looked at.

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roles responsibilities
Roles & Responsibilities

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urban expenditures for women
Urban expenditures for women

Pro-women urban expenditures

  • Water supply
  • Sanitation – Sewerage and storm water drain
  • Low cost Public transport (bus transit in the first phase more than metro rails wherever feasible as Geetam Tiwari of IIT Delhi argues)
  • Solid waste management
  • Urban poverty alleviation
  • Slum development
  • Education
  • Health care

Women-specific urban expenditures

  • Feminist services

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capturing spatial inequalities
Capturing spatial inequalities
  • Most Indian cities, particularly large cities are segmented by class and some are segmented by social groups.
  • For example, east Mumbai, and west Mumbai, South Mumbai and suburban Mumbai; east Ahmedabad and west Ahmedabad; South and east Bangalore and North and west Bangalore
  • Expenditures need to be analysed spatially
  • 74th Amendment has made it possible to observe expenditures and benefits of public expenditure by wards.
  • A ward in metros like Mumbai is a city by itself.

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central schemes
Central schemes
  • National Urban Renewal Mission – 60 cities including 7 mega cities. For infrastructure upgradation. Rs. 10,000 crores p.a. over five years. Fund in support of urban reforms. Largely metro cities (million plus), capital city in all states and other cities of historical importance. Central grant or assistance to leverage more funds on its own. Cost receovery to the extent possible and even privatisation of basic services form an important component of the NURM
  • Mega City Scheme – only seven cities (Delhi, Greater Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkata and Hyderabad). 50% government contribution, (25% central & 25% state) and 50% of ULB raised through financial institutions or market. Government share to be given to the nodal agency as revolving fund, of which 75% to be recovered from the ULB. Only 12.5% comes to the ULB as grant.
  • 12th Finance Commission grant of Rs. 5,000 crores of which 50% to be spent on Solid Waste Management that is in dismal situation now.
  • In first year, NURM allocation of Rs. 5,500 crores of which Rs. 2,000 crores (36%) for urban poverty programmes and remaining for other infrastructural programmes

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considerations for engendering
Considerations for engendering

For Mega City and NURM

  • Public hearings and discussions on use of funds for setting priorities of the city. Not much happening now except public hearings of municipal budget in Bangalore.
  • Need for public awarness, information & consultation
  • Rather than a business plan for the city need for basic services plan (in the first phase of city development), to reach out with full coverage of lacking services
  • In five year plan, first years, emphasis on basic services coverage than infrastructures such as highways within the city.
  • Cost recovery mechanisms for basic services to be based on intensive studies of affordability of the poorest households and poorest women.
  • Systemmatic Benefit incidence analysis

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current budgetary emphasis in some mega cities
Current budgetary emphasis in some mega cities

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metro budgets
Metro budgets

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investment priorities
Investment priorities

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different priorities capabilities of cities
Different priorities & capabilities of cities

Per capita expenditures on water supply & sanitation (Mahadevia & Mukherjee 2003)

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slide16

Bangalore – Debt Services

Ahmedabad – Debt Services

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slide17

Expenditure Incurred by City Government on Poor (%) - Bangalore

Expenditure Incurred by City Government on Poor (%) - Ahmedabad

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small city budget priorities
Small city budget & priorities

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per capita expenditures by city size punjab
Per capita expenditures by city size - Punjab

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expenditure priorities by size class punjab
Expenditure priorities by size class - Punjab

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action points for schemes in small cities
Action Points for Schemes in small cities
  • Increase in efficiency of the small ULBs
  • Participatory need assessment and prioritisation
  • Since these towns have higher sex ratio and more poverty, reaching to women through the list of services listed earlier is easier.
  • More emphasis and financial allocation to the small towns.

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