framing tourist risk in uk press accounts of hurricane ivan marcella daye l.
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Framing tourist risk in UK press accounts of Hurricane Ivan Marcella Daye Purpose of Study To examine press reports of Hurricane Ivan published in UK national newspapers to determine how the disaster was framed with specific focus on how tourist risk was constructed.

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Presentation Transcript
purpose of study
Purpose of Study

To examine press reports of Hurricane Ivan published in UK national newspapers to determine how the disaster was framed with specific focus on how tourist risk was constructed.

social amplification of risk theory
A signal value is produced in the event of a crisis or a disaster.

Individuals or groups interested in or related to the risk are likely to filter or distort signals based on their own beliefs and values

Perceptual gaps may arise between stakeholders related to the crisis in terms of perception and assessment

Social Amplification of Risk Theory
framing practices in the mass media
Framing Practices in the Mass Media
  • Santos (2004) argues that to frame is to select certain issues to make them more salient in order to present a particular angle that influences ‘meaning making’
framing of tourist destinations
Framing of tourist destinations

‘When the media transmit a message about a specific region of the world, they ultimately replace the specific values of those whom they are reporting about with the values of those to whom they are reporting. This forcing of the destination into the context of the reader, present him/her with his/her own views’. (Santos (2004:123)

media crisis management
Media Crisis Management
  • Ensure centralisation and of information dissemination
  • Designate principal spokesperson and back-up person
  • Be prompt with information and don’t cherry pick selected media for exclusives
the 3 stages in media coverage of a crisis dunne 2004
The 3 Stages in media coverage of a crisis (Dunne:2004)
  • 1st Stage – The vacuum – much speculation/inaccuracies while the media search for sources and key informants
  • 2nd Stage – Media focus on crisis and how it is being managed
  • 3rd Stage – Recovery period, media had lost intense focus and coverage wanes
the media and the travel decision process glaesser 2004
The Media and the Travel Decision Process (Glaesser:2004)
  • Negative events may lead to changes in the purchase decision process

2. If there are no alternative sources of information, the media may be most influential in shaping attitudes and opinions

media coverage of negative events
Media coverage of negative events

The nature of the coverage by the media of the negative event with respect to the sources they choose to quote, their news values in terms of prioritising and emphasis, all combine to construct a context of the risk associated with travel to an affected destination.

source credibility
Source Credibility
  • The public may have perceptions of credible sources that may differ from that of the media and disaster management officials.
  • Destination image theories state that information from the media and word of mouth are seen as more credible than information from tourist boards
study method
Archived stories on Hurricane Ivan published in UK national press between September 6-15, 2004 were content analysed –

Main variables being measured to evaluate UK press framing of the hurricane

Destination mention in headline,

First source/informant mentioned in article

Focus of lead sentences

Study Method
findings no distinction between newspaper brands for news values
No significant differences between the various titles in terms of level of coverage, sources used and the focus of the lead stories

There seemed to be a generic framing strategy across the various brands

The names of destinations were not prominently mentioned in headlines to highlight association between country brands and the hurricane – only 37%

Findings – no distinction between newspaper brands for news values
findings story sources
Local politicians were the first attributed sources in the sample at 17.7%

Travel intermediaries were ranked second at 12.9%

Tourist agencies/boards were only mentioned once – 1.6%

Weather experts – 11.3%

Tourists/eyewitness - 9.7%

Locals/eyewitness – 8.1%

Other journalists/news wires – 8.1%

Disaster management agency/centre – 8.1%

Findings – Story Sources
findings summary
The UK press tended to display similar framing strategies

Stories that used sources from tour companies and tourists who witnessed the event tended to have lead sentences that focussed on tourist risk

Where local politicians were the main source, the lead sentence tended to emphasise risk to locals rather than tourists

Stories quoting weather experts mainly highlighted the approach of the hurricane with a focus on describing its impact, effects and outcomes

Travel intermediaries were likely to be used and valued as main sources of information in the early stages of the hurricane

Findings - Summary
conclusions
Travel intermediaries to be more engaged

Counter strategies to provide alternative perspectives on the disaster/crisis

More research required on risk perceptions of tourists

Conclusions