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Framing tourist risk in UK press accounts of Hurricane Ivan Marcella Daye Purpose of Study To examine press reports of Hurricane Ivan published in UK national newspapers to determine how the disaster was framed with specific focus on how tourist risk was constructed.
To examine press reports of Hurricane Ivan published in UK national newspapers to determine how the disaster was framed with specific focus on how tourist risk was constructed.
Individuals or groups interested in or related to the risk are likely to filter or distort signals based on their own beliefs and values
Perceptual gaps may arise between stakeholders related to the crisis in terms of perception and assessmentSocial Amplification of Risk Theory
De-attenuation----------De-intensificationSocial Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) - Kasperson (1996)
‘When the media transmit a message about a specific region of the world, they ultimately replace the specific values of those whom they are reporting about with the values of those to whom they are reporting. This forcing of the destination into the context of the reader, present him/her with his/her own views’. (Santos (2004:123)
2. If there are no alternative sources of information, the media may be most influential in shaping attitudes and opinions
The nature of the coverage by the media of the negative event with respect to the sources they choose to quote, their news values in terms of prioritising and emphasis, all combine to construct a context of the risk associated with travel to an affected destination.
Main variables being measured to evaluate UK press framing of the hurricane
Destination mention in headline,
First source/informant mentioned in article
Focus of lead sentencesStudy Method
There seemed to be a generic framing strategy across the various brands
The names of destinations were not prominently mentioned in headlines to highlight association between country brands and the hurricane – only 37%Findings – no distinction between newspaper brands for news values
Travel intermediaries were ranked second at 12.9%
Tourist agencies/boards were only mentioned once – 1.6%
Weather experts – 11.3%
Tourists/eyewitness - 9.7%
Locals/eyewitness – 8.1%
Other journalists/news wires – 8.1%
Disaster management agency/centre – 8.1%Findings – Story Sources
Stories that used sources from tour companies and tourists who witnessed the event tended to have lead sentences that focussed on tourist risk
Where local politicians were the main source, the lead sentence tended to emphasise risk to locals rather than tourists
Stories quoting weather experts mainly highlighted the approach of the hurricane with a focus on describing its impact, effects and outcomes
Travel intermediaries were likely to be used and valued as main sources of information in the early stages of the hurricaneFindings - Summary