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Drug Analysis. Forensic Science/CSI Foster. How would you figure out which type of drug each of these are?. Tests. Drug Identification. Screening or presumptive tests Spot or color tests Microcrystalline test —

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drug analysis

Drug Analysis

Forensic Science/CSI

Foster

tests
Tests

Drug Identification

Screening or presumptive tests

Spot or color tests

Microcrystalline test—

a reagent is added, producing a crystalline precipitate that is unique for a certain drug

Chromatography

Confirmatory tests

Spectrophotometry

  • Ultraviolet (UV)
  • Visible
  • Infrared (IR)

Mass spectrometry

forensics unit 3 notes
Forensics Unit 3 Notes

Drug- a natural or synthetic substance designed to affect the subject psychologically or physiologically

Controlled Drugs- material whose possession is controlled by law (Controlled Substances Act)

controlled substances act
Controlled Substances Act

Schedule I—high potential for abuse; no currently accepted medical use in the U.S.; a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision

Examples: heroin (diacetylmorphine), LSD, marijuana, ecstasy (MDMA)

Schedule II—high potential for abuse; a currently

accepted medical use with severe restrictions; abuse

may lead to severe psychological or physical

dependence

Examples: cocaine, morphine, amphetamines (including

methamphetamines), PCP, Ritalin

controlled substances act continued
Controlled Substances Act, continued

Schedule III—lower potential for abuse than the drugs in I or II; a currently accepted medical use in the U.S.; abuse may lead to moderate physical dependence or high psychological dependence

Examples: intermediate-acting barbiturates, anabolic steroids, ketamine

Schedule IV—low potential for abuse relative to drugs in III; a

currently accepted medical use in the U.S.; abuse may lead to

limited physical or psychological dependence relative to drugs

in III

Examples: stimulants and depressants including Valium, Xanax,

Librium, phenobarbital, Darvon

controlled substances act continued7
Controlled Substances Act, continued

Schedule V—low potential for abuse relative to drugs in IV; currently accepted medical use in the U.S.; abuse may lead to limited physical or psychological dependence relative to drugs in IV

Examples: codeine found in low doses in cough medicines

types of drugs
Types of Drugs
  • Hallucinogens- naturally occurring substances that can change normal thought processes, perceptions and moods
  • Stimulants- act on the central nervous system to make the user feel better and increase his/her energy alertness while suppressing appetite and fatigue
  • Narcotics- relieve pain
    • Designer drugs- designed for abuse and evasion of specific drug laws
testing for drugs
Testing for Drugs
  • Spot Tests- chemical reaction occurs causing a color change
    • Must use further testing to confirm – spectroscopy
testing for drugs10
Testing for Drugs
  • Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)- separates the components of the mixture
testing for drugs cont
Testing for Drugs (cont.)
  • Metabolism- the sum of all chemical processes occurring in an organism
    • Metabolites- molecules involved in the process of metabolism (found in hair)
    • The presence of metabolites implies what the original chemical was
    • Can lead to false positives
testing for drugs cont12
Testing for Drugs (cont.)
  • Presumptive (screening) Test- presumes the presence of the questioned substance
    • Tests using color- for marijuana, LSD, amphetamines, cocaine, heroin, barbiturates

Marquis—turns purple in the presence of most opium derivatives and orange-brown with amphetamines

Dille-Koppanyi—turns violet-blue in the presence of barbiturates

Duquenois-Levine—turns a purple color in the presence of marijuana

Van Urk—turns a blue-purple in the presence of LSD

Scott test—color test for cocaine; blue

testing for drugs cont13
Testing for Drugs (cont.)
  • Confirmatory tests- specifically identify one substance (many different types)
    • Spectroscopy- study of radiation and it’s interaction with matter
      • Infrared spec. studies absorption of energy near IR
      • Mass spec. studies presence of ions- atoms or molecules that have lost or gained one ore more electors and have a charge (positive or negative)