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Circulatory system. General outline. Heart Arteries Capillaries veins. Blood vascular system. Lymphatic capillaries Lymphatic vessel Lymphatic ducts. Lymphatic vascular system. Capillaries . A single layer of endothelial cells basement membrane A few connective tissue (pericytes).

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general outline
General outline

Heart

Arteries

Capillaries

veins

Blood vascular system

Lymphatic capillaries

Lymphatic vessel

Lymphatic ducts

Lymphatic vascular system

capillaries
Capillaries

A single layer of endothelial cells

basement membrane

A few connective tissue (pericytes)

  • LM

Continuous capillary

Fenestrated capillary

Sinusoid

  • EM
slide4

Capillaries

Continuous C.

Fenestrated C.

Sinusoid

continuous capillary
Continuous capillary:
  • distributed in muscle tissue, brain, lung and

connective tissue, etc.

  • endothelial cell: large number of pinocytotic

vesicles, no pores, exist cell junctions

between the endothelia

  • basement membrane: integrity
fenestrated capillary
Fenestrated capillary:
  • distributed in the kidney glomerulus, mucosa

of gastrointestine, some endocrine glands

  • endothelial cells: present abundant pores, have

or haven’t diaphragm on them

  • basement membrane: continuous
sinusoid
Sinusoid:
  • distributed in liver, spleen, and some

endocrine glands

  • a greatly enlarged diameter
  • endothelial cell: intercellular clefts are large

between cells, many pores without diaphragm

  • absence of a continuous basement membrane
artery
Artery
  • transport blood from heart to capillaries
  • according to their size, structure

and function

Large artery

Medium-sized artery

Small artery

arteriole

are classified

medium sized artery
Medium-sized artery:
  • muscular artery

Endothelium

Subendothelial layer: LCT

Internal elastic lamina: clear

Tunica intima

Tunica media: contain 10~40 layers of circular

smooth muscle

External elastic lamina

LCT: contain vasa vasorum

Tunica adventitia

large artery
Large artery:
  • elastic artery
  • subendothelial layer is thicker with a few

smooth muscles

  • tunica media is thick, contains a lot of circular

elastic membrane

  • internal and external elastic lamina are not

distinguished

  • tunica adventitia are thiner
small artery
Small artery:
  • muscular artery and peripheral resistance

vessel

  • internal elastic lamina is clear, while

external elastic lamina is not distinguished

  • the media contains 3~9 layers of smooth

muscles

slide19
Vein
  • large lumen, thin wall, irregular
  • internal and external elastic lamina are not clear
  • tunica media is thin, with a few elastic fibers and

smooth muscles

  • tunica adventitia is thick
  • some veins have valves
heart
Heart
  • a muscular organ that contracts

rhythmically

  • pump blood through the circulatory

system

the wall of heart
The wall of heart

Endothelium

Subendothelial layer

Subendocardial layer

  • endocardium
  • myocardium: thickest layer, consists of

cardiac muscle

LCT: contain adipose tissue

Methothelium

  • epicardium
impulse generating and conducting system of the heart
Impulse generating and conducting system of the heart:
  • Pacemaker cells: heartbeat generating
  • Purkinje cells (bundle cell):

distributed in subendocardial layer, larger than cardiac muscle cells

  • Transitional cells: transmit impulse
slide23

Purkinje cell

Cardiac cell