Circulatory system - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Circulatory system

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  1. Circulatory system

  2. General outline Heart Arteries Capillaries veins Blood vascular system Lymphatic capillaries Lymphatic vessel Lymphatic ducts Lymphatic vascular system

  3. Capillaries A single layer of endothelial cells basement membrane A few connective tissue (pericytes) • LM Continuous capillary Fenestrated capillary Sinusoid • EM

  4. Capillaries Continuous C. Fenestrated C. Sinusoid

  5. Continuous capillary: • distributed in muscle tissue, brain, lung and connective tissue, etc. • endothelial cell: large number of pinocytotic vesicles, no pores, exist cell junctions between the endothelia • basement membrane: integrity

  6. Continuous capillary

  7. Fenestrated capillary: • distributed in the kidney glomerulus, mucosa of gastrointestine, some endocrine glands • endothelial cells: present abundant pores, have or haven’t diaphragm on them • basement membrane: continuous

  8. Fenestrated capillary

  9. Sinusoid: • distributed in liver, spleen, and some endocrine glands • a greatly enlarged diameter • endothelial cell: intercellular clefts are large between cells, many pores without diaphragm • absence of a continuous basement membrane

  10. Sinusoid

  11. Artery • transport blood from heart to capillaries • according to their size, structure and function Large artery Medium-sized artery Small artery arteriole are classified

  12. Medium-sized artery: • muscular artery Endothelium Subendothelial layer: LCT Internal elastic lamina: clear Tunica intima Tunica media: contain 10~40 layers of circular smooth muscle External elastic lamina LCT: contain vasa vasorum Tunica adventitia

  13. Medium-sized artery

  14. Large artery: • elastic artery • subendothelial layer is thicker with a few smooth muscles • tunica media is thick, contains a lot of circular elastic membrane • internal and external elastic lamina are not distinguished • tunica adventitia are thiner

  15. Large artery

  16. Small artery: • muscular artery and peripheral resistance vessel • internal elastic lamina is clear, while external elastic lamina is not distinguished • the media contains 3~9 layers of smooth muscles

  17. Vein • large lumen, thin wall, irregular • internal and external elastic lamina are not clear • tunica media is thin, with a few elastic fibers and smooth muscles • tunica adventitia is thick • some veins have valves

  18. Heart • a muscular organ that contracts rhythmically • pump blood through the circulatory system

  19. The wall of heart Endothelium Subendothelial layer Subendocardial layer • endocardium • myocardium: thickest layer, consists of cardiac muscle LCT: contain adipose tissue Methothelium • epicardium

  20. Impulse generating and conducting system of the heart: • Pacemaker cells: heartbeat generating • Purkinje cells (bundle cell): distributed in subendocardial layer, larger than cardiac muscle cells • Transitional cells: transmit impulse

  21. Purkinje cell Cardiac cell