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The History of Christianity. The Victorious Church. © John Stevenson, 2008. Class Objectives. To recall, summarize and evaluate the fortunes of Christianity from the late patristic period (5th century) through the high middle ages of medieval Christianity (13th century).

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the victorious church

The History of

Christianity

The Victorious Church

© John Stevenson, 2008

class objectives
Class Objectives
  • To recall, summarize and evaluate the fortunes of Christianity from the late patristic period (5th century) through the high middle ages of medieval Christianity (13th century).
  • To describe how the doctrine of the Incarnation came to be defined by the early Church.
  • To summarize and evaluate the rise and spread of the Monastic movement.
class objectives1
Class Objectives
  • To recognize the factors that gave rise to the growth of the Roman Catholic Church and the office of the Papacy.
  • To recognize and name the ecclesiastical differences between the Church in the East from that in the West which resulted in a profound schism.
  • To define and describe what Scholasticism is and analyze what it reveals about medieval Christianity.
slide5

1

500

1500

2000

1000

A Timeline of Church History

The

Ancient

Church

The

Medieval

Church

The

Reformed

Church

tertullian 155 222

Tertullian155-222

We are but of yesterday, and we have filled every place among you - cities, islands, fortresses, towns, market-places, the very camp, tribes, companies, palace, senate, forum… (Apologeticus 37)

slide7

100

200

300

400

500

1

The Ancient Church

Edict of Toleration

Church persecuted by Rome

Polycarp

Paul

Marcion

Diocletian

Peter

Tertullian

John

Constantine

slide8

Diocletian

  • Division of Empire
  • Persecution of Christianity
  • Retirement (305)
edict of toleration

Edict of Toleration

Christians may again exist and rebuild the houses in which they used to meet, on condition that they do nothing contrary to public order. (Quoted from Eusebius, History of the Church 8:17:5).

constantine
Constantine
  • Battle for the Milvian Bridge (312)
constantine1
Constantine
  • Battle for the Milvian Bridge (312)
  • “In this sign conquer”
  • Edict of Milan: Restated & expanded the Edict of Toleration (313)
  • Reunification of Roman Empire
  • Favored status (324)
christianity as favored religion
Christianity as Favored Religion
  • Bishops given the right to judge civil cases
  • Sunday made into a public holiday
  • New Edict of Toleration: Christians not allowed to persecute pagans
before constantine

After Constantine

Less purity within the church

Before Constantine

Long periods of catechism training before receiving baptism

Requirements to become a Christian were minimized

Purity within the church

Christians known for their strict lifestyle

Loosening of the standards

Martyr mentality among the pious

Monastic mentality began to emerge among the pious

donatus magnus died 355

Donatist

Controversy

Donatus Magnus(Died 355)

What about those who have been baptized or married by fallen bishops?

slide16

Rome

Constantinople

 Antioch

 Jerusalem

Alexandria

arius
Arius
  • Priest in Alexandria, Egypt
  • Taught that Christ was a created being
  • Christ was the first created being who then created all the rest of creation
  • Deposed by Alexander, bishop of Alexandria
council of nicaea

Constantinople

Nicaea

Council of Nicaea
  • Met at Nicaea in 325
  • 300 Bishops in attendance (5 from west)
  • Alexander & Athanasius versus Arius
the nicene creed

The Nicene Creed

We believe in one God the Father

All‑sovereign,

Maker of all things.

And in one Lord Jesus Christ,

the Son of God,

begotten of the Father,

only‑begotten,

that is, of the substance of the Father

God of God, Light of Light,

true God of true God,

begotten not made,

of one substance with the Father…

docetic

Christological Heresies

Docetic

Ebionite

Christ only seemed to be divine

Arian

Christ was created by God and then created all else

Christ only seemed to be human

Apollinarian

Christ had no human spirit; Logos came and replaced it

Monoarchian

Jesus became the Christ as His baptism

eutyches

Christological Heresies

Eutyches

Sabellianism

One God reveals Himself in three ways

Nestorian

Logos indwelt the person of Jesus making Christ a God-bearer

Human nature of Christ absorbed by the Logos

Monophysite

Christ had only one nature

Monothelite

Christ had no human will; only one divine will

Adapted from Robert Walton

church councils of the 4 th and 5 th centuries

Church Councilsof the 4th and 5th Centuries

325

Jesus is of the same substance as the Father

Council of Constantinople

381

Holy Spirit is co-eternal with the Father and Son

Council of Nicaea

Council of Ephesus

431

Jesus is one person, fully divine and fully human

Council of Chalcedon

451

The human and divine natures of Jesus are unmixed

slide23

100

200

300

400

500

1

The Ancient Church

Edict of Toleration

Fall of Rome

Four Church Councils

Church persecuted by Rome

Athanasius

Polycarp

Paul

Marcion

Arius

Peter

John

Constantine

st anthony 251 356
St. Anthony251-356
  • Christian in Egypt
  • Heard a sermon on Christ’s words to the rich young ruler: “Go and sell all your possessions and follow me.”
  • Gave away his possessions and moved into the desert, living the life of a hermit
simeon stylites 390 459

Simeon Stylites390-459

Removed himself to the top of a pillar in Syria

pachomius 292 348
Pachomius292-348
  • Born in Thebes
  • Forcibly inducted into military
  • Converted to Christianity
  • Followed example of Anthony
  • Organized nine groups of both male and female monasteries
monasticism in the west

Monasticism in the East

Monasticism in the West

Desert living; sometimes in community and sometimes alone

Communal living, but usually within some proximity to civilization

Emphasis on reaching out to culture

Emphasis on escaping culture

benedict of nursia 480 542
Benedict of Nursia480-542
  • Ran away to live in a cave at the age of 14.
  • Established a monastery at Monte Cassino
  • Rule of St. Benedict
rule of st benedict

Rule of St. Benedict

Idleness is the enemy of the soul. And therefore, at fixed times, the brothers ought to be occupied in manual labor; and again, at fixed times, in sacred reading (Documents of the Christian Church, P.133).

rule of st benedict1

Rule of St. Benedict

The brothers shall wait on each other in turn so that no one shall be excused from the kitchen-work, unless he be prevented by sickness, or by preoccupation with some matter of great necessity… (Documents of the Christian Church, P.132).

rule of st benedict2

Rule of St. Benedict

Let not the younger brothers have beds by themselves, but dispersed among the seniors. And when they rise for the service of God let them gently encourage one another, because the sleepy ones are apt to make excuses (Documents of the Christian Church, P.129).

slide45

100

200

300

400

500

1

The Ancient Church

Edict of Toleration

Fall of Rome

Four Church Councils

Church persecuted by Rome

Athanasius

Polycarp

Paul

Origen

Marcion

Arius

Augustine

Peter

John

Constantine

Pelagius

slide46

100

200

300

400

500

1

The Ancient Church

Edict of Toleration

Fall of Rome

Church persecuted by Rome

Theodosius

Athanasius

Polycarp

Paul

Origen

Marcion

Arius

Augustine

Peter

John

Constantine

Pelagius

acts 20 28

Acts 20:28

Be on guard for yourselves and for all the flock, among which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to shepherd the church of God which He purchased with His own blood.

acts 20 29 31

Acts 20:29-31

I know that after my departure savage wolves will come in among you, not sparing the flock; 30 and from among your own selves men will arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away the disciples after them. 31 Therefore be on the alert…

slide50

Rome

Constantinople

 Antioch

 Jerusalem

Alexandria

ambrose of milan
Ambrose of Milan

339 - 397

  • Governor of Milan
  • Civil strife over Arian controversy upon death of Bishop of Milan
  • Ambrose called for peace and was nominated as bishop though unbaptized
  • Gave away his property and studied for ministry
ambrose of milan1
Ambrose of Milan

339 - 397

  • Withstood the Arians
  • Justina, the regent for her son, demanded that the church adopt Arianism. Ambrose refused.
  • Brought congregational singing into the church
  • Excommunicated Theodosius in 390
jerome 347 420
Jerome347-420
  • Traveled to Syria and learned Hebrew, later traveled through Palestine and Egypt
  • Settled in Palestine where he devoted himself to writing
  • Translated the Bible into Latin (Vulgate)
john chrysostom
John Chrysostom

347-407

  • His nickname was Chrysostom (“golden-tongue”)
  • Trained in law before studying for ministry
  • He was a preacher at Antioch
  • Appointed to be bishop of Constantinople
  • Known for preaching exegetically from the Bible
school of alexandria

School of Antioch

School of Alexandria

Emphasized the plain sense of the meaning of the Bible in interpretation

 Antioch

Sought the “deeper meaning” by use of allegorical interpretation

Clement of Alexandria, Origen

Chrysostom, Theodore of Mopsuestia

Alexandria

john chrysostom1
John Chrysostom

347-407

  • The Empress Eudoxia had him exiled because she was displeased with his preaching on Elijah and Jezebel.
  • He was banished to Pontus.
augustine 354 430
Augustine354-430
  • Mother was Monica, a Christian
  • Teacher of rhetoric in Milan
  • Admired Ambrose for his speaking ability
  • “Take up and read”
slide58

Augustine354-430

Let us behave

properly as in the

day, not in carousing

and drunkenness, not

in sexual promiscuity

and sensuality, not

in strife and

jealousy…

slide59

Augustine354-430

But put on the

Lord Jesus Christ,

and make no

provision

for the flesh in

regard to its

lusts.

(Romans 13:13-14)

augustine 354 4301
Augustine354-430
  • Bishop of Hippo, North Africa
  • Confessions: Tells story of his coming to Christianity
  • Rome sacked by Visigoths (410)
  • City of God
the city of god
The City of God
  • The Kingdom of God is not to be found in today’s political arena
  • The Christian’s true citizenship is in the city of God
slide62

Accordingly, two cities have been formed by two loves: the earthly by the love of self, even to the contempt of God; the heavenly by the love of God, even to the contempt of self. The former, in a word, glories in itself, the latter in the Lord.(City of God 16:28)

slide63

The earthly city, which does not live by faith, seeks an earthly peace, and the end it proposes, in the well-ordered concord of civic obedience and rule, is the combination of men's wills to attain the things which are helpful to this life. The heavenly city, or rather the part of it which sojourns on earth and lives by faith, makes use of this peace only because it must, until this mortal condition which necessitates it shall pass away.(City of God 19:17)

augustine versus pelagius

Augustine versus Pelagius

Man is essentially good

Man’s will was affected by the fall so that, apart from the Spirit, he does not choose God

Man’s will is neutral; he has the free will to either follow God or reject God

Man is born in sin and spiritually dead

Salvation is a gift of God to undeserving men

Salvation comes as men imitate Christ

predestination
Predestination

What does the

Bible Teach?

Free Will