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Cell Communication - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Cell Communication Chapter 11 Cells need to communicate between themselves to maintain homeostasis. Process by which signal on cell’s surface converted into specific cellular response consists of series of steps - signal-transduction pathway.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2
Cells need to communicate between themselves to maintain homeostasis.
  • Process by which signal on cell’s surface converted into specific cellular response consists of series of steps - signal-transduction pathway.
slide3

http://www.mpi-dortmund.mpg.de/departments/dep1/signaltransduktion/image3.gifhttp://www.mpi-dortmund.mpg.de/departments/dep1/signaltransduktion/image3.gif

slide4
Yeasts communicate between 2 types of yeast cells to reproduce.
  • 2 sexes, a and alpha - secrete specific signaling molecule, a factor and alpha factor.
  • Factors find each other and bind to each other’s receptors.
slide6
Also occurs in multicellular organisms.
  • Some cells release local regulators - influence cells in local vicinity.
slide8
Synaptic signaling - nerve cell produces neurotransmitter that diffuses to single cell - is almost touching sender.
  • Nerve signals travel along series of nerve cells without unwanted responses from other cells.
slide10
Plants, animals - hormones to signal at greater distances.
  • Cells may communicate by direct contact.
  • Signaling substances dissolved in cytosol pass freely between adjacent cells.
slide13
3 stages to signal transduction.
  • 1Reception - chemical signal binds to cellular protein at cell’s surface.
  • 2Transduction - binding leads to change in receptor that triggers series of changes along signal-transduction pathway.
  • 3Response - transduced signal triggers specific cellular activity.
slide15
Receptor proteins present on cells to recognize signal molecules.
  • Ligand - molecule that binds to another molecule, causes cell to change shape when attached to cell’s receptor.
  • Receptors usually found on plasma membrane since signals can’t pass through membrane.
slide16

http://www.slic2.wsu.edu:82/hurlbert/micro101/images/lock_key.gifhttp://www.slic2.wsu.edu:82/hurlbert/micro101/images/lock_key.gif

slide17
1 type - G-protein-linked-receptor.
  • Acts as on/off switch; cycles between being active and inactive.
slide20
Tyrosine-kinase receptor system helps different systems to function at same time.
  • System activated - activates other systems at same time.
slide23
Ligand-gated ion channels open/close to allow chemical signals to pass through.
  • Important in nervous system - allow Na+ and K+ move into and out of cell.
slide25
Some signals diffuse through plasma membrane; don’t need proteins.
  • Some are hormones which act on transcription process.
slide27
Transduction stage of signal pathway allows for small signal to be amplified - causes large signal.
  • Protein kinases essential - help to initiate responses.
slide30

http://www.du.edu/~kinnamon/3640/second_messengers/levitan11.2.jpghttp://www.du.edu/~kinnamon/3640/second_messengers/levitan11.2.jpg

slide31
Response of particular cell to signal depends on particular collection of proteins.
  • Some pathways actually linked by scaffolding proteins - allows signals to be passed through pathways.
slide32

http://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/photos/2004/DNAbinding-300.jpghttp://www.bnl.gov/bnlweb/pubaf/pr/photos/2004/DNAbinding-300.jpg