Main Functions of Buildings Provide a safe and comfortable environment for work and rest. (Protect us from wind, rain and the wild animals) Two types of loads act on a building structure ： 1. Vertical force (Load from the weight of human, furniture or building itself) 2. Lateral force
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1. Vertical force
(Load from the weight of human, furniture or building itself)
2. Lateral force
(Load from wind or earthquake etc.)
1. For safety, a building will not collapse under great stress
2. For comfort, a building will not move excessively under great pressure
eg. For a load of 200,000 kg shared by 4 pillars, each
pillar has to bear 50,000 kg.
In the above case, if the area increases and the load remains unchanged, the stress will decrease.
2. Steel bar：
1. Reduce the distances between the pillars and thicken the beams.
=>To increase the structural efficiency.
However, when the structural efficiency maximizes, the frame will become a box with many small holes on it.
eg. Jardine House
- Most of the external forces are taken by the super-sized structural components.
eg. Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank Building