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Artificial Intelligence "Let me put it this way, Mr. Amer. The 9000 series is the most reliable computer ever made. No 9000 computer has ever made a mistake or distorted information. We are all, by any practical defintion of the words, foolproof and incapable of error.“

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artificial intelligence

Artificial Intelligence

"Let me put it this way, Mr. Amer. The 9000 series is the most reliable computer ever made. No 9000 computer has ever made a mistake or distorted information. We are all, by any practical defintion of the words, foolproof and incapable of error.“

HAL 9000 Computer in the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey. Later, HAL killed four astronauts and tried to lock the fifth one out of the spaceship on the way to Jupiter.

what is artificial intelligence
What is Artificial Intelligence?
  • Hard to define intelligence
  • Duplicating the qualities that we associate with intelligence in a machine
  • The Turing Test
  • Instructor’s Definition:
    • Programming a machine to respond appropriately to a situation we cannot forsee
topics under arificial intelligence
Topics Under Arificial Intelligence
  • Expert systems
  • Natural language processing
  • Voice recognition
  • Machine vision
  • Machine learning
  • Parallel processing
expert systems
Expert Systems
  • Replicating the qualities of human expertise in a limited domain
  • Idiot savant
expert systems cont
Expert Systems (cont.)
  • Major Components
    • Knowledge base
    • Knowledge acquisition subsystem
  • Expert system shell has an empty knowledge base
expert systems cont6
Expert Systems (cont.)
  • Building an expert system
    • Requires a domain expert and a knowledge engineer
    • Iterative questioning and answers (prototyping)
    • Populating the knowledge base with rules
    • Testing
expert systems cont7
Expert Systems (cont.)
  • Example expert systems applications
    • MYCIN - medical diagnosis of blood diseases
    • American Express - credit authorization (no credit limits)
    • Audit planner/advisor for accountants
natural language processing
Natural Language Processing
  • Allows us to communicate with computer the same way we communicate with each other
  • Problem - more is being communicated than is contained in the words. Must understand:
    • Syntax of language
    • Context
    • General understanding of the world
voice recognition
Voice Recognition
  • Add problems of understanding human voice to those of NLP
    • Accents
    • Pronunciation different based on context
    • Separation of continuously spoken words
  • Useful in limited areas
    • Restricted domain (collect call connection)
    • One speaker
machine vision
Machine Vision
  • Allowing computers to “see”
  • Digitizing an image is easy
  • Must interpret the image so computer can act on what it sees
    • Filter out irrelevant details
    • Produce a description meaningful to computer
    • Applications
      • Let robots see so they can process under more uncertainty
      • Guided missiles
machine learning
Machine Learning
  • Computer program that automatically improves its performance through experience
  • Two major technologies
    • Neural network
    • Genetic algorithms
parallel processing
Parallel Processing
  • Really an enabling technology
  • Approaching the limits of Von Neumann model
  • More of a software problem than hardware (dividing up a problem into multiple, independent threads)
the sum of it all
The Sum of it All
  • Adjustment of ambition
  • Orientation towards ends, rather than means
  • Not to imitate life in all its respect
  • Expert systems is most commercialized