APA at a Glance. A guide to in-text and reference citation methods By Laura Burrows, Tutor & Michael Frizell, Director. Empirical Reports: *Title Page *Abstract *Introduction Methods Results Discussion *References *Appendicies. Literature Reviews:
A guide to in-text and reference citation methods
By Laura Burrows, Tutor &
Michael Frizell, Director
A literature review follows APA citation style only
Most still use a cover page
Some professors may request an abstract
They will include a reference pageEmpirical vs. Literature Review
Page number: five spaces from text of header
Running head: Actually type the words “Running head,” followed by a colon, then an abbreviated version of the title in all caps
No more than 50 characters, spaces included
Biology and Personality 12
LEVEL FIVE IS CENTERED AND CAPSLOCKED
Level One is Centered and Capitalized
Level Two is Centered and Capitalized
Level Three is Left-Aligned and Capitalized
Level four is tabbed once from the left and punctuated.
Participants had demonstrated “words can be successfully ignored if the task conditions are right” (Strafford & Gurney, 2004, p. 977).
Stroop (1935) noted there commonly occurred a “sex difference in naming colors” (p. 21).
Some studies have suggested reading may not be an automatic process (Strafford & Gurney, 2004).
Stroop (1935) examined potential factors for the different reaction times his participants exhibited.Types of Citations
(Strafford & Gurney, 2004)
Three to five authors:
First citation: (Risko, Stolz, & Besner, 2005)
Subsequent citations: (Risko et al., 2005)
Six or more authors:
(Smith et al., 2004)*
* In the reference page, list up to six authors, and use ‘et al.’ after the sixth
As part of narrative:
Strafford and Gurney (2004)
Three to five authors:
First citation: Risko, Stolz, and Besner (2005)
Subsequent citations: (Risko et al., 2005)**
Six or more authors:
Smith et al. (2004)
** It doesn’t matter if the first citation is parenthetical or part of the narrative; any subsequent citations, parenthetical or otherwise, will be listed with the ‘et al.’ abbreviation.Number of Authors
(Smith, Jones, & Madson, 2004) and (Smith, Johnson, & Jones, 2004)
Shorten to: (Smith, Jones, et al., 2004) and (Smith, Johnson, et al., 2004)
DO NOT change the order of the authors! They must be represented as they are credited in the study.
When two different works have the same author and the same year:
(Smith, 2005a) and (Smith, 2005b)
Works will be listed as they appear in the reference pages
When two different authors have the same surname:
(A. Smith, 2005) and (C. D. Smith, 1995)
Even if the date of publication differs, distinguish between the two authors by including first initialsExceptions and Special Cases
By the same author:
Order by year of publication:
(Skinner, 1966, 1981)
By multiple authors:
Order as references appear in Reference* page:
(Branch, 1980; Carlson, 2001; Todd & Morris, 2005)
One author cited multiple times in one paragraph:
If there is no possibility of confusion, only cite the year in the first citation*
*Once a new paragraph begins, the study must be fully cited againMore Citation Rules
Cite with ‘anonymous’ as author:
Cite the first few words of the title, along with the year:
For articles or chapters, use quotes: (“Cognitive dissonance,” 2004)
For titles of periodicals, books, brochures or reports, use italics: (Psychology, 2005)
Personal communications (i.e. letters, interviews, memos, emails, telephone conversations, etc.):
(A. F. Butan, personal communication, October 25, 2005)
Note: do not include personal communications in the reference listCitation Rules, cont’d…
When a group or corporation has a long name and a common or easily understood abbreviation:
First citation: (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2000)
Subsequent citations: (NIMH, 2000)
Cite with abbreviation “n.d.” for works with no known publication date:
(Samson, n.d.)Citation Rules, cont’d…
If no author, use the first few words of title: (“Chimps,” 2005).
If no date, use the abbreviation “n.d.” : (Johnson, n.d.)
Direct quotes of web-based documents:
Since websites do not include page numbers, cite the paragraph number if possible:
(Kirby, 2004, para. 5)
Cite the sub-section and paragraph number if possible:
(“Snakes,” n.d., Care and Feeding section, para. 4)
Note: when a web-based source is printed, the top of the page will include a number for the purpose of printing, i.e. “1 of 3.” These are NOT the page numbers of the document and should not be cited as such.Citing Web Pages
Nothing precedes something:
Green, E. C. (2000).
Greene, B. A. (1994).
Harrison, M. R. (2004).
Harrison, M. R., & Blake, C. D. (2001)
Multiple works by same author:
One author: arrange chronologically
Blake, B. R. (1990)
Blake, B. R. (1993)
One author, same year: order by title
Blair, S. M. (2000a). Care and feeding…
Blair, S. M. (2000b). Observations…Reference List
Gravetter, F. J., & Forzano, L. B. (2005). Research methods for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson.
Risko, E. F., Stolz, J. A., & Besner, D. (2005). Basic processes in reading: Is visual word recognition obligatory? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 119-124.
Schmidt, J. R., & Cheesman, J. (2005). Dissociating stimulus-stimulus and response-response effects in the Stroop task. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology,59(2), 132-138.
Periodic journals which publish volumes per year differ in the way they paginate the individual issues. Some journals begin each issue where the last left off:
Volume 1, issue 1: page 1-200
Volume 1, issue 2: page 201-400
These journals are paginated by volume, and do not require the issue number in the reference citations
Paginated by Issue
Journals whose issues each begin on page one require the issue number in the reference page to specify the issue in which an article appears:
Volume 23, issue 1: page 1-205
Volume 23, issue 2: page 1-300
[An article listed in volume 23, page 189, would not tell a reader which issue contained the article]Journal Pagination: Volume or Issue?
Plath, S. (2000). The unabridged journals (K. V. Kukil, Ed.). New York: Anchor.
Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial visual reactions [Electronic version]. Journal of Experimental Psychology,121(1), 15-23.
(Note: if there is no print version available, include date of access and URL after the issue: Retrieved July 5, 2005, from http://www... Use the exact URL of the article if possible, unless you have retrieved an article from a newspaper’s site (i.e., www.newyorktimes.com)
Holliday, R. E., & Hayes, B. K. (2001, January). Dissociating automatic and intentional processes in children’s eyewitness memory. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology,75(1), 1-5. Retrieved February 21, 2001, from Expanded Academic ASAP database (A59317927).
Chovil, I. (n.d.). What is schizophrenia? Retrieved November 6, 2005, from http://www.chovil.com/first.html
If there is no author, use the title as the author, followed by the date in parenthesis.
A complete list of types of sources, cross-referenced to examples, can be found in the APA publication manual on pages 232-239.